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Recollections and Edited Notes on the Conference

ΠΡОБЛЕϺА ΠΡΟСТРАНСТВА И ВРЕМЕНИ
В СОВРЕМЕННОМ ЕСТЕСТВОЗНАНИИ

(THE PROBLEM OF SPACE AND TIME IN MODERN SCIENCE)
14-16 March 1989
Pulkovo Observatory, Leningrad, Russia, USSR

R.S. Fritzius
Shade Tree Physics


Installed on 23 Feb 2017. Latest Update 24 Mar 2017.

Under Construction!

See Bryan Wallace's Relativity Revolution for a parallel account of the conference.

Page numbers are from my trip notes. Non-conference details have been omitted. Where speed-writing compressions had been used, the whole-word expansions are shown in [square braclets].

[The snipits gleaned from each presentation are far from being a satisfactory record of what was actually said. I was taking notes from an interpreter and am confident that I must have missed at least every other sentence. Hopefully the reader of this document can gain a feel for the gist of the talks by reading between the lines.]

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14 March - Tuesday

THE PROBLEM OF SPACE AND TIME IN MODERN SCIENCE
Day One


10:00 - В. К. АБАЛАКИН [V. K. Abalakin], Director of Pulkovo Observatory. - Opening remarks.

Changing times. It's difficult to define time in space. Brown[ian] theory became free of time problems. 1000 BC argument. They understood well about time..... Japan and Mexico eclipses...trying to find gnosiological roots of these problems. ________ University of __________, North Ireland, Great Britain and USSR. Maybe [the] conference [can] be useful for Deutschland. [A] copy of book was sent. Svetlana told _________________ [a] list of articles to be presented, 30 minutes each. Ideas of time ______continuous grief? Time and astrophysics. Formulation of Philosophical ____________ continues and time__________.


10:15 - Ю. Б. МОЛЧАНОВ [Yu. B. Molchanov] (Moscow) - Universal and general sense of time.

Diff[erent] points of view give different explanations of time. Macro and micro physics use time continuity. Some break of fm? physics notion of time & continuity of time but it wasn't useful. Need a real view - a general basis -- We must know general -- attributes -- how to differentiate past, present & future -- Time goes backward? Different logical theories. Time has indifference? structure, not finite about ___________ point of view. ______________ was [the] first who understood dialectical sense of time, then rel[ativity] and quantum theories -- Interupted or continuous? _________ point of view -- time is continuous and discrete -- task.. Sense of time is micro-process of physics today. [From the] point of view of DeBroglie, [rhymes with Mega Volts] many difficulties -- sense of ______________. M. V. failed in [a] real sense -- structure of time and continuity -- all effects     says fact of -- We must see time in another form. Maybe science will find new lines -- Maybe scientists will find lines which failed [the] philosophers. Maybe time and continuity [will] catch [interact with?] one another in different ways. Formula of indifference? about [the] work of Euler. -- Structure of cont[inuity] in time has new lines. Wasn't [a] task of physics -- Is [a] general task of all branches of science. Was first difficult task -- From [the] cause of ___________ some effects

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we have many images? but continuity may be ruined and changed. We must find some correlation..... Discuss all the properties of time and its contact [interaction?] with continuity... Three coordinates of space and [one of] time. Four coordinates.... empirical facts. Theory must have [a] model for more coordinates than four. Theory about superstrings (SS) may be 500 dimensions. 606 and many .....SS object has one dimension -- Discusses paradox of quest[ion] -- in what dimensions continuity --? Three variants of [the] task. Three theories. SS[s] have a place -- [with] values of energy but not in ours. Theoretical [physicists] use method -- Save the form [for] these phenomena. [He] Thinks some effects [are] not observed. We alt? last theory is connected with our description -- our world - only in theory. Atom has universe with two dimensions. We can't prove it with experiment. It is connected with synchroton radiation.. [Model] of time with two dimensions. The Art of Time and Time in [twos?] Spin accompanient ------ may be observed material -- maybe -------- radius from minus sign --- invloved theory [widrow!] Time with one dimension. Psychologist tries to describe time with two dimensions. We don't understand how time changes with one dimension. Method to ------ in order -- this -- no new views. Three points of view: child, science, philosophers. Child didn't understand two or several events simultaneously. Knows only [of] one event without synchronism. It is a model to how we can do for order from two coordinates to one coordinate. Child knows how one dimension of time is universal. Was one of the potential ways to understand time. We didn't do art[icle?] of break? --different descriptin of continuity with several (more than three dimensions) -- It isn't clear which property of time and space -- They must be connected. Endless ------ the question of invariance, limited and unlimited, it was to think about endless space and time -- It wasn't connected -- right hand coordinates -- must need many variants. It will be useful to have philosophers' point of view on universal property -- didn't disappear -- the most general point of view is more useful.

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The most interesting things in science and philosophy --- [is] understanding. Universal circle -- intervals [of] past, present, future -- process continuous all the time -- not property of time but property of [the] whole universe. Now discussed unity of time and space. Property must be universal-- It is quantity and quality [which] must be discussed in philosophy. Most general principle: correlated time and space.

His book about connecting problems of time and space isn't in sales. Has only 100 copies.

Q & A

Q. (Smirnov) ____ Interested in Law of preservation.
Can't answer. (Next Question)
Didn't understand second question.

Q. (Smirnov - second question) ________________________
A. First question was not replied -- Second unknown. Impossible to understand it.

Q. ____________ theoretical alchemists?
A. We must attack this problem. Don't want to be an alchemist. Suppose physics has found problem but not
      Psychology, soc[iology], phy[ ? ], etc.

Q. About details [of] theories of geometries of many dimensions connected with this theory and [the] theory of
    question is, "What is your own point of view?"
A. Don't have one.

Q. ________ studied his apologetics _____________
A. What is [the] aim [of] your ideas [regarding] time and space in modern cosm[ology]?

   x
      x
          x
              x
                  x
                      x
                          x
                              x
                                  x
                                      x
                                          x
                                              x
                                                  x
                                                      x

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II.
_____ - _. _. ГРИББ [ _. _. Grebb] ( ) - Time is a property of gravitational field.

Time has.... goes with different velocities in different systems of coordinates. IS time... wants to build one another (combine?) -- principles of quantum theory with theory of gravity by Einstein who believed in a world with four dimension. (invention) Level man is one line. Riemann has his own lines -- point of the beginning - Einstein -- determinist -- was point of View of St. Augustine -- present object and future objects -- When we saw different presence ... ... for future objects we have memory -- We were blind -- different from quantum theory -- when we take dimensions we -- stopped the event. -- To be continued.

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- 23 -

- 24 -


[SPEAKER 3]
_____ - А. Д. ЧЕРНИН [A. D. Chernin] (Leningrad) - Continuity and time in modern astrophysics.

We haven't a determ[ination] of time which can [be] built.
St. Augustine knew what time is .... when asked
he didn't really know.

In sci[ence] this quest[ion] is very clear. [An] astrophys[icist]
doesn't think about time all his life.
The defin[ition] of time [is a] very hard task.
We have dialectical Marxism -- time is [a] form [of] materialism.
25 years ago, Lect[ure] of one phil[osopher]. ______ When English
know time is [a] form of materialism --
It was ____________ [a] phys[icist] asked [a] phil[osopher] about facts
[that] can be understood [from his?] point of view. But Phys[icist] attacked [the] philos[opher]
cannot give sci[entific] facts. Philosopher did not fail his memory.
Phys[icist] and phil[osopher] didn't understand one another. Stud[ent]s
were angry against phil[osopher] because their brains were unclear
because of phil[osophy].

NO, we have[n't?] [a] full concept of time. ---- sc[ience]?
Var. ruin -- crisis in sci[ence] because tunnel
(Barutsky?) hand -- ____________ Now sci[ence] is crazy --
World line -- Greek article _____________ against (TORN?)
topological -- pecularities -- top -- from geometry,
not phys[ics]. Theo[ry] of Rel[ativity] on basis of Topology.
Topology was without _________________ undetermined indefinite construction.
-- To be continued.

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My point of view --- Absolute zero of time in not usable. Universe must be created at zero point of time. We know before what they think about Friedmann. Birth of time was useful. [More to follow.]

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Q. The theory about time beginning at one point?
A. Time can't go back[ward?] --- fact of ---

Q. What is nothing?
It is something. If we can't do something wer must not discuss it. This is discussing nothing. Cosmological nothing may be a vacuum but I am not sure.


Business   >   Must finish at 1:00 O'clock.


12:50 - Ю. М. СМИРНОВ [Yu. M. Smirnov] ( ) - Hegel's point of view

a ≡ a
a – a = 0
a - 1/a = ∆

Everything, if it is real, much be itself, herself and another Anti I.

About Hegel and his point of view about space. ...

0 ∞ =

Only by some individuals --------
we have some
___________________________________________

[No further notes for Smirnov.]


13:00 - _. _. __________ [ ] ( ) Understanding about one moment in time.

Two events, one instant. We cannot define __________ simultaneously. Einstein himself criticized the middle point of a line. Velocity of light must be determined not by the middle , but only as a constant? at one site. Simultainiety not matter? in middle of line, Example from Einstein -- train and observer on road.

                                  x
                                       x
                                            x
                                                 x
                                                      x

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[Figure 27-01 to go here.
If the light from A & B meet at the middle ---[the] signals
are simultaneous. but Einstein himself had another
description -- Obs[erver] from train met light earlier.
He catches misteak in Einstein. - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Time is method or condition of being of material
not a form but a method.

[Figure 27-02 to go here.]
We can image two individuals _______________________________ def[inition] of time
Time is a condition of living objects
[Lotta background rumbling]
Velocity was not time. --

Lunch in Canteen
Coffee at Svetlana's


15:05 - _. _. __________ [ ] ( ) _____________________________ [This may have been someone making an announcement.]


15:06 - С. А. ТОЛЧЕЛЬНИКОВА-МУРРИ [Svetlana A.Tolchelnikova-Murri] (Pulkovo Obs.) History of fight of [over] different versions
Historical review of this problem to the end of the 19th century.
Problem began to be discussed - philosophers not in front line,
at least nobody discussed fund[amental]s, practice of humility
- Astronomy's basis of ____________, astrometry too - neither point of view
began [by the] turn of the century. Science of cos[mology] and earth, item phil[osopher]s? not
that of observers in astron[omy]. Ast[ronomer]s came to discuss
[the] problem of time and space epoch ________________
More difficult to understand than ___________________.

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    It was not a paradigm _______ at first -- of humanity -- before renaissance -- basis of ideals. Newton said "in the shadow of giants" -- but who ruined something -- had real sense. It was such ruined in your own interests, mistakes in science. Every point of view came to winter, to absorb everything.
    Process of gen[uine] humanity. for us a time for every human individual who has this understanding from birth but for humanity in general, understanding of process--
    Ast[ronomers] dealt with ideal system of scale and time, coordinate systems, depends on liberty of observer -- depends on aim of studies. We can imagine six dimensions of space but ____________ we have diff[iculty]. -- It is difficult to undersand bodies in space -- it is empty, simple -- cetate? from space. We couldn't receive the idea of clean space - out of my talent -- space is ideal -- not --. Space was out of of objects. It was a source of mysteries. Every idea we can understand but we surround one another.
    Berkeley hoped in double world, but today ingreeb? double world.... It is a collective malady. There are more examples of a double world in the minds of philosophers. Now, she says, Philosophers today who don't want to deal withs time and space in general. For the first time all that understanding of gen? understand we had to find its sources.
    Our organs of sense sedate? from about ________ that we can know something in the world with [our] senses but space is not from our senses. It -- human is measure of all things. Sophistic phrase. Herodotus says that geometry was born in 100 BC when it was needed to measure the earth, but the brain is a very great thi;ng. ____________ how the sense of became understanding begins in grammatical understanding. We take classification of objects -- we don't do ideals _________________. We can imagine it __. We can receive idea image of all figures so on abstract understanding of point-line-figures -- such a thing as Copernicus?
    Now she reads part of ____________. He used geometrical images (bodies). We see physical bodies -- study them-- get understanding about them. ________________ Astronomy basis of science of understanding time and space. ______________ After geometry, kinematics became a useful tool -- When we can see the history of all undersanding from antiquity to now we can be proud because _____________.
    Projective geometry was method of ancient astronomers and philosophers. Every astronomer understood pecession, etc. Has his sources in observations -- difficult to measure distances because earth _____ little base [short baseline?].

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    Study of ______________ from antiquity to present. Fields disappear when they do their task but it is ___________ general universal measures for understanding. _______________________ .
    Measurement of speed and time need a universal standard. Gave them a scale. -- the (develop?) but not ideal. The first example of distinction is the radius of the earth -- all units from astronomy. Now we have an atomic standard of time -- the modern scientist and philosophers take at standard as universal unit of time -- We measure time by the number of days. Every (clock) can give to another generation about time and space. It is the relationships __________ literature.
    Newton was not as simple as we read and hear. He had empty space. Only one philosopher Chesov didn't speak about Newton. Deformation of _______________
    Astronomer's part of _____________ it is ________________. The discussion of problems we can see -- antiquity to middle ages, St. Thomas Aquinas, etc.
    Middle ages, Copernicus had a source of ideas from the middle ages. He selected stars for his catalogue. He ____________ thought that these stars were not moving. Newton's theory, we can see by the forces. (Every? law)of nature must be proved. Pedological studies -- to be ground ___________.
    Even Marhoff (Markov?) and Poincaré were against the view that Newton was very simple.
    We have many mistakes in terms. Dangerous mistakes from the nineteenth century. We can see them -- This is a statement from Einstein's "Physics and Reality in inertial system coordinates." We do measurements by the stake (region) (solid stake) _______________ all our science ruined when we begin to measure something.
    She listed problems in modern astronomy after scientific difficulties,we had war and other social conditions which interrupt scientific discussions.

Q&A

Q. What is exactness in astrometry?
A. Measurement of time to 1 x 10-9 seconds. Coordinates to 1 x 10-10 ?

Q. System of Quasars - can it be used?
A. System of time based on pulsars, system of radio coordinates. We have a system but not to be used alone. This question changed ______________ was not long lived objects.

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[14 MAR 1989]
Q.In celestial mechanics with dynamic formulations ________________________?
A. I am not a celestial mechanics --- is possible to build dynamical system of coordinates -- task of Kashee

Q. Laws of Newton ______________________________?
A. Newton didn't discuss velocity of gravitation.

Q. (Couldn't hear question.) Newton theory in dynamical bodies - solar system -- units interna[national] astro[nomical] union___________?
A. Three years ago they decided to study the question of time. What is time in astronomy? Trajectory of comets need a system of coordinates, such as 100 years ago. We have some systeme of coordinates in different conditions and times.


15:45 - В. И. СЕКЕРИН [Vladimir I. Sekerin] (Novosibirsk) The role of astronomical observations in ________ space and time.

Roemer
Roemer, first measurement of velocity of light.

T1 = 1.77 days = 1.5x105 sec.   [Orbit Period of Io]

T2 = T1 + 15 sec;   T4 = T1 - 15 sec.

T1 × C = λ     λ/(C-V) = T2         [Note: λ = 4.5e10 Km.]

   λ                               T2 + T4
——— = T4       C = ———— V
C + V                           T2 - T4

Roemer -- They had to discuss it in Academy of Science. Cassini didn't want to entertain it.

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31-01

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[14 MAR CONT]
Q1 Gives (sedate?) from his paper - printed relativity dangerous to science and anti Marxist. [Its] teachers are shamans (charlatans?).

Q2 What is his opinion? (Shamanstoy?) -- Rel[ativity] begins from Marham? only

Q3 Big arguement gets going -- This is apparently a departure from text books.

Q4 Fill in later-- if possible -- Use Sekerin Q4 if entered later.

 |   x                                                                               x
 |       x                                                                       x
 |           x                                                               x
 |               x                                                       x
 |                   x                                               x
 |                       x                                       x
 |                           x                               x
 |                               x                       x  
 |                                   x               x
 |                                       x       x
 |                                           x
 |                                       x       x
 |                                   x               x
 |                               x                       x
 |                           x                               x
 |                       x                                       x
 |                   x                                               x
 |               x                                                       x
 |           x                                                               x
 |       x                                                                       x
 |   x                                                                               x

MC trying to keep things in order.

Sekerin up and down.


16:15 - ЛЕНА _. __________ [Lena ____________] (Pulkovo Obs.) Lena gives her talk. - She has been interpreting for me.
[She is a co-worker with Svetlana.] May get English version from her later.


_____________

Lenna (sic) seems to be talking about Svetlana.
Reaction from audience is good.

Q.
A.

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[14 MAR CONT]
16:35 - ______________ [Manujlov?] ( ) Structure of space and time by __________________________.
[If this is Manujlov then co-author is A.A. Kurbatov.]
This _____________________ was of Rogero __________ Valinsky is interesting figure.
Killed in 1913 but sci[entist] too. _____ view of Space and Time when we
study moving bodies -- electrical points --- St. Charles biblical
text. (very unusual.) Time and space from bible
We have mass of materials -- Stability of stations of bodies
quantum electrodynamic electrons ---- Space with body with
energy. we can change [the] energy of some dynam[ic] systems -
conn[ected] to one another --- Sys[tem] formulate by Boscovich?
He was part? catholic author but sci[entist] (great) too.
The 30 years will be short -- We tried to explain the
the theory of Boscovich becasue [it] is [a] clean
mathematical apparatus (antique!) like Newton (terminology)
law of gravity, Newton --- the state when [a] body
can stay at a place very long --- wants to explore
task of Rochee? body moves [in an] ellipse a & b

More to come.

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16:57 - _. _. ВАЗИЛЕВСКИ [_. _. Bazilevsky] (Leningrad) - Bazalevski [in-absentia] paper being read.-- See Svetlana for dtails.

Maxwell's formulae not in connection with relativity.

May be related to Bazelevsky who built the first astrophysical observatory in his home.

When we receive different velocities _____________ law was proved
by exp[eriments] on earth and cosmic________________ space velocity of light
was constant --- was not proved.
Magnetic conduction depends on time

      ∂ρ/ ∂t is wrong! But Einstein used it anyway.

Bar Варин discussed all th formulas of Eint[ein].

[More to come.]

---

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MC announces that all people are invited to he Hermitage to the golden room, sponsored by the [Civil] Aviation Institute.


17:33 - ______________ [ Arzichofsky ] ( ) Speaking fast!

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17:52 - Person from Institute of Informatics - Time is a function of many factors.

---

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18:00 - MC - House-keeping details


Round table give and take discussion.


Wrap up by MC "We have to go home."


Sekerin puts in a last punch - defending Roemer's experiment (from earlier question)

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15 March - Wednesday

THE PROBLEM OF SPACE AND TIME IN MODERN SCIENCE
Day Two

Approximately 50 attendees.


11:05 - _____________ [Troisky] ( ) Astro-theoretics?

- 40 -

- 41 -


11:25 - И. П. ГАВРИЛОВА [I. P. Gavrelova] ( ) (Lady) Space/Time very important in physics thinking. Aim of record - give short observations of physics and non-physics understanding of S/T. This problem connected with physics. Very different approach. This coincidence now real understanding math contgracting physics of space. ---- Gravitation very important in all problems from physics' approach. Gauss, Lobichevsky, Einstein tried to understand connection but physics voice and physics _______________(not speaking voice)

- 42 -


11:57 - Б. РОК [B. ROK] (Poland) Evolution of understanding of our view of properties. Scientific understanding around the world cannot be a law. Maybe some approach in understanding around the world. Understanding cannot be absolute - development. [Svetlana likes this presentation.].... When it gets dogmatized is stops being science.

Rok Q&A

-43-

Rok Q&A Continued.


12:30 - Б. УОЛЛАС [Bryan Wallace] (St. Petersburg Florida, USA) Svetlana introduces him and interprets [to the assembly].

In 1963 P.A.M. Dirac introduced a new kind of ether. From this developed
straight line of sight photon
circular - electron
RH circle positive
LH circle negative
a dynamic ether -- particle and force all in one material medium moving through empty space. Distance in space related to motion of material. If it moves in a circle -- periodic -- time like. Space and time are related this material. They are man-made expansions. They don't exist - only this material.

It was important in my theory to know particle or wave. Radar and radio signals ultimate test. I would think that any reasonable physicist would realize that analysis of transmission times _____________. It makes a very big difference between wave vs particle.

1958, 1961 - great test of this. The data (1961) published in Astro____ Journal 1962, 1963.

This figure is a plot of the Astronomical Unit as a function of the radar data. Large variations -- several thousands of Km for the AU. Radar data should have been accurate to ± 1.5 Km. These variations are not random. 30 day earth-moon period -- and period of earth Venus-Sun. Small variations -- earth's [daily} rotation. Same data as Doppler shifts.

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Measured values of elapsed time of radar signals -- measured vs theoretical.
actual vs theoretical

Same article had a table of round trip travel time and Doppler.
______
This is Figure 1 of my 1969 paper. I analyzed 1961 data.

[Figure to go here.]

Values from Newcomb's Tables -- Newcomb's tables are based on constant c.

If Einstein is correct the ε and N curves should coincide. -- The G curve is based on c+v.

Cowells? curve method of Newtonian integration -- evidence that Newton's theory matches radar data. Have received more reprint requests fro this paper -- many from USSR.
Doctor Page helped much but did not want to be co-author. Much correspondence with Irwin Shapiro -- Radar stations around the world sent to Shapiro.

4th Texas Symposium on Relat[ivistic] Astrophysics.     Shapiro talk claimed data was consistent with Einstein. I challenged Shapiro. He admitted that he only analyzed data with the wave model, c = constant. Admitted large variations.

- 45 -

Admitted math he used would cover up variations. At the meeting he said he would send me any data I wanted. This is the letter I sent to him on February 13, 1969 asking for more data. I wanted to show earth's rotational period produces sinusoidal variations with wrong theory. Soviet/US measured earth different positions simultaneously - 260 Km error -- acc[uracy] to 1.5 Km.

Shapiro did not reply in print to Wallace - done privately. I said, "You offered data - you ignored in two letters."

I quoted your remarks . . . you cleaned up your errors by [making] one measurement per day or measured when the planet was not visible.

Letter from Ellen Hollingsworth - Air Force send data, but it was worthless -- It did not have the daily variations -- Radar sites ~ mile apart.

Theodore Moyer, JPL - equations same as my c+v equations. JPL analyses all current data. He calls the principle term in his equations "Newtonian Light Time" -- does not acknowledge importance of the matter.

Published in Science Ethics "The great speed of light in space coverup." Gives all the details. This was Shapiro's rebuttal -- doesn't say why it was slander. In the next article of the Journal of Scientific Ethics I published that if I made an error anywhere I would apologize.

[Q & A will be held off until after lunch.] Participants want more details. Intense response from floor.

Lunch - 15 March

``````

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14:36 Bryan Wallace Q & A

Q. What was your __________________________
A. _______________________________________

Q. _______________________________________
A. Einstein's search for ______________________

Q. _______________________________________
A. Science is my religion.

Q. _______________________________________
A. Einstein was not a perfect scientist.

Q. _______________________________________
A. Einstein was a politician. - Nobody is perfect.

Q. _______________________________________
A. [In my] opinion, some of Einstein's work is good. Some is bad. I am a realist.

Q. Determ[ining] A.U. Classical versus Rel[ativistic] pos[ition]
A. JPL, accuracy ± 1 Km. - Exact eval shows the value of sol[ution] somewhere between C and C+V.

Q. ______________________________________
A. Lorentz time contraction [is] true.

Q. ______________________________________
A. 269 Km Max error [from] opposite sides [of the world].     69 Km.   269 Km.

Q. ______________________________________
A. ______________________________________

Q. ______________________________________
A. Presented to Physics Revew Letters -- First referee said "Go for it!" Made changes -- Second referee ↓↓↓↓. [According to] Editor - Samuel
    Goldschmidt, second referee was first referee [but the] type[writers] were different and texts [were] different (refs) -- Published letter in
    Physics Today. At [a] science meeting [the] editor was looking at me when he thought I didn't see [him] -- Hatred look.

- 47 -

Q. I asked about your relation to Shapiro.
A. Shapiro is evasive (to me). Does not lie - Lies by omission.

Q. [I] read some publication by Shapiro in 1966 -- It was written     V+C       1966
    Was surprised that Shapiro changed his opinion.                                 3C ST
A. Would like to see that.

Q. Welcome to Leningrad.
A. ________________________________


14:50 - В. В. ЧЕШЕВ [V. V. Cheshev] (Tomsk) - [The] Principle of relativity and [the] problem of [objectivity] of space and time.

Invest[igate?] model of _______________________ in science [we're] supposed to search for truth but we don't enter ____________________ Sophists against _______________________. Fighting object Relativity, God or Nature.

Ideal in ethics ___________________________________________.

Einstein tells them absolute Space and Time. Newton said same as Einstein. tells what Newton said.
________________________________________________
Not correct.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Absolute motion and [the] image of relative motions - (origin[inal]?) principles positions of Galileo and Newton.
Absolute motions phil[osophers] interpretation of Newton's positions _______________ therefore Space and Time in Newton's theory is [a] theory of motions.
absolute motions -- recognized -- gen[erate]d by forces.
Relative motions -- effects of --- appear observations.
?? Is N[ewton] theory wrong? Theory exp[lain]s _____________ or not?
Newton's theory [has] many exp[planation]s -- OK?

Marchoff's/[Markov's?] position - critics of Newton - pedagogues methodologist - not phys[icists].
Try [to] understand Newton, modern in Newton's - t[heory] of m[echanical] rigid bodies. mach's principle -- more[move?] deeply? better than Mach ____________. (aelius?) Two chapters -- research and analyze only one question -- What is the ground constructions when [we?] weigh in [the] beginn[ing] of conceptions?

- 48 -

____________ therefore it is, _________________, Poincaré, Goske? from 19th cent[ury].
Poincaré's point of view [was] objective reality. [He] thinks [to] prefer only
[to] have _______ [we] can measure only relations between different bodies -- elements.
___________
Poincaré says system coordinates [that] have [been] located [at] different points of space.
2 systems -- phys relations -- laws [of] equivalence - analysis
of covariance.
One type is Lorentz covariance.
Lorentz and FitzGerald think about const[ructs?] that [are] also covariant.
_____
Poincaré is in rapport with Lorentz.
After Poincaré -- Lorentz says to try to construct a system of equations and transforms
[from] one system to another - Equations don't change.
_____
But, I think he's wrong. Lor[entz] transforms are such math ___________
natural physical constr[ucts],
therefore my position ______ dual _______ supposed the invar[iant] trans[forms]
maybe only constr[uction] from math ______ don't connect to phys[ics].
Chesev's ______ any trans[form] theo[ry] only from physics point of view.
Phys[ics] and math 1718 and partly 19th [century] fought
[thought?] another point of view._____ Math[matical] const[ruct] must have [a]
physical basis.
versus Phy[sics] must have a mathematical foundation.
Poincaré's prob[lem] - try[ing] to const[ruct] invariant theory which
invar[iant] theo[ry] true not only for _______, we [know] 1st Newton's law
is true but when C.O.M. [center of mass?] accelerations
1st Newtons's Law C. O. M. [un]steady. Poincaré t[hinks it] [poss[ible]
to constr[uct] theo[ry] ______ mass cent[er] deform invariant
occasions. ____________
Chesev - quest[ions] What must be [the] methodology in anal[ysis] of
S/T problems?
Sugg[est]s that reserrations? - sol[utio]ns of problems -- with all data,
empirical way. Conclusion -- two positions. Astron[omy] such sci[ ?] which are really
sys[tems] of coord[inate]s _____ many ages, centuries, traditions
continuous_______ When any scient[ist] have a questions
the sci[entist] comes to resolve [the] positions [in] himself, then
diff[ ? ] sci[entist]s come ack to arensic? again _________
[It's] really sensible to come back to class[ical] positions.
Q. We can explain using class[ical] pos[itions].
A.
Q,
A.

- 49 -


15:27 - ____________ [Zlodnikov?] ( ) The problem of standardation of words [Notions and Definitions of Space and Time]
[Cheshev is new MC.]

One hundred and fifty years from Pulkovo's building, in cosmic light this institute shines.

Standardization [is the] main problem in large ________ Not in space only. [The] principle economy of _____________ principle of __________________. Sci[entific] point of view -- words are bad terms for objects -- no science but soph[isticate]s, bad soph's -- therefore [the] word time has no determined sense.

- 50 -

- 51 -


16:05 - М. Г. СЕРБУЛИНКО [M.G. Serbulenko] (Tomsk) Binary stars.

- 52 -


16:30 -П. Ф. ПАРШИН [Pavel F. Parshin] (Leningrad) Ives experiment.

- 53 -


17:00 - ____________ [Alexandra] (Pulkovo)

- 54 -


17:?? - ____________ [Azjukkowski? ] ( ) Captain Butusov interpreting

- 55 -


17:35 - ____________ [G. Golokolov]( ) Evgeny Petrovich?

- 56 -


17:47 - ____________ [Belotosky] ( )


18:00 - 30 Minute talks are over. Floor is now opened to discussion, typically 10 minutes per speaker.

- 57 -


18:20 - ____________ [Smirnov?] addresses the group.


18:24 - ____________ [ ] ( ) Twin Paradox


18:30 - П. Ф. ПАРШИН [Pavel Parshin] (Leningrad)


18:34 - ____________ [ ] ( ) Ecology problem - Death of Humanity in 25 years! Chernobyl and so forth. Ecology catastrophe.


18:38 - K. P. БУТСОВ [K. R. Butusov] ( ) Russian Physics

- 58 -


18:44 - ____________ [Vladimir Azjukowski] ( ) Ether flux converging on earth?


18:48 - К. В. МАНУЙЛОВ [Constantine V. Manujlov] (Leningrad)


18:54 - ____________ [ ] ( ) Problem of space and time is a practical problem


19:00 - ____________ [Galina Vasiljeva?] ( )


19:02 - K. P. БУТУСОВ [Butusov] ( )


19:03 - ____________ [ ] ( ) We have listened 1 - 2 hours...


19:05 - FINI!



Send comments/inputs to Robert Fritzius at fritzius@bellsouth.net

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