Page numbers are from my trip notes. Non-conference details have been omitted.
Where speed-writing compressions had been used, the whole-word expansions are shown in [square braclets].
[The snipits gleaned from each presentation are far from being a satisfactory record of
what was actually said. I was taking notes from an interpreter and am confident that I must have missed at
least every other sentence. Hopefully the reader of this document can gain a feel for the gist
of the talks by reading between the lines.]
- 18 - 14 March - Tuesday
THE PROBLEM OF SPACE AND TIME IN MODERN SCIENCE Day One
10:00 - В. К. АБАЛАКИН [V. K. Abalakin], Director of Pulkovo Observatory. - Opening remarks.
Changing times. It's difficult to define time in space. Brown[ian] theory became free of time problems.
1000 BC argument. They understood well about time..... Japan and Mexico eclipses...trying to find
gnosiological roots of these problems. ________ University of __________, North Ireland, Great Britain
and USSR. Maybe [the] conference [can] be useful for Deutschland. [A] copy of book was sent. Svetlana
told _________________ [a] list of articles to be presented, 30 minutes each. Ideas of time ______continuous
grief? Time and astrophysics. Formulation of Philosophical ____________ continues and time__________.
10:15 - Ю. Б. МОЛЧАНОВ [Yu. B. Molchanov] (Moscow) - Universal and general sense of time.
Diff[erent] points of view give different explanations of time. Macro and micro physics use time
continuity. Some break of fm? physics notion of time & continuity of time but it wasn't
useful. Need a real view - a general basis -- We must know general -- attributes -- how to
differentiate past, present & future -- Time goes backward? Different logical theories. Time has
indifference? structure, not finite about ___________ point of view. ______________ was [the] first
who understood dialectical sense of time, then rel[ativity] and quantum theories -- Interupted or
continuous? _________ point of view -- time is continuous and discrete -- task.. Sense of time is
micro-process of physics today. [From the] point of view of DeBroglie, [rhymes with Mega Volts]
many difficulties -- sense of ______________. M. V. failed in [a] real sense -- structure of time and
continuity -- all effects says fact of -- We must see time in another form. Maybe science
will find new lines -- Maybe scientists will find lines which failed [the] philosophers. Maybe time and
continuity [will] catch [interact with?] one another in different ways. Formula of indifference?
about [the] work of Euler. -- Structure of cont[inuity] in time has new lines. Wasn't [a] task of
physics -- Is [a] general task of all branches of science. Was first difficult task -- From [the] cause
of ___________ some effects
- 19 -
we have many images? but continuity may be ruined and changed. We must find some correlation.....
Discuss all the properties of time and its contact [interaction?] with continuity... Three coordinates
of space and [one of] time. Four coordinates.... empirical facts. Theory must have [a] model for more
coordinates than four. Theory about superstrings (SS) may be 500 dimensions. 606 and many .....SS object
has one dimension -- Discusses paradox of quest[ion] -- in what dimensions continuity --? Three variants
of [the] task. Three theories. SS[s] have a place -- [with] values of energy but not in ours.
Theoretical [physicists] use method -- Save the form [for] these phenomena. [He] Thinks some effects [are]
not observed. We alt? last theory is connected with our description -- our world - only in theory. Atom has
universe with two dimensions. We can't prove it with experiment. It is connected with synchroton
radiation.. [Model] of time with two dimensions. The Art of Time and Time in [twos?] Spin accompanient
------ may be observed material -- maybe -------- radius from minus sign --- invloved theory [widrow!]
Time with one dimension. Psychologist tries to describe time with two dimensions. We don't understand how
time changes with one dimension. Method to ------ in order -- this -- no new views. Three points of view:
child, science, philosophers. Child didn't understand two or several events simultaneously. Knows only
[of] one event without synchronism. It is a model to how we can do for order from two coordinates to one
coordinate. Child knows how one dimension of time is universal. Was one of the potential ways to understand
time. We didn't do art[icle?] of break? --different descriptin of continuity with several (more than three
dimensions) -- It isn't clear which property of time and space -- They must be connected. Endless ------
the question of invariance, limited and unlimited, it was to think about endless space and time -- It
wasn't connected -- right hand coordinates -- must need many variants. It will be useful to have
philosophers' point of view on universal property -- didn't disappear -- the most general point of view
is more useful.
- 20 -
The most interesting things in science and philosophy --- [is] understanding. Universal circle -- intervals
[of] past, present, future -- process continuous all the time -- not property of time but property of [the]
whole universe. Now discussed unity of time and space. Property must be universal-- It is quantity and
quality [which] must be discussed in philosophy. Most general principle: correlated time and space.
His book about connecting problems of time and space isn't in sales. Has only 100 copies.
Q & A
Q. (Smirnov) ____ Interested in Law of preservation.
Can't answer. (Next Question)
Didn't understand second question.
Q. (Smirnov - second question) ________________________
A. First question was not replied -- Second unknown. Impossible to understand it.
Q. ____________ theoretical alchemists?
A. We must attack this problem. Don't want to be an alchemist. Suppose physics has found problem but not
Psychology, soc[iology], phy[ ? ], etc.
Q. About details [of] theories of geometries of many dimensions connected with this theory and [the]
question is, "What is your own point of view?"
A. Don't have one.
Q. ________ studied his apologetics _____________
A. What is [the] aim [of] your ideas [regarding] time and space in modern cosm[ology]?
- 21 -
_____ - _. _. ГРИББ [ _. _. Grebb] ( ) - Time is a property of gravitational field.
Time has.... goes with different velocities in different systems of coordinates. IS time... wants to
build one another (combine?) -- principles of quantum theory with theory of gravity by Einstein who believed in
a world with four dimension. (invention) Level man is one line. Riemann has his own lines -- point
of the beginning - Einstein -- determinist -- was point of View of St. Augustine -- present object
and future objects -- When we saw different presence ... ... for future objects we have memory
-- We were blind -- different from quantum theory -- when we take dimensions we -- stopped the event. --
To be continued.
- 22 -
- 23 -
- 24 -
_____ - А. Д. ЧЕРНИН [A. D. Chernin] (Leningrad) - Continuity and time in modern astrophysics.
We haven't a determ[ination] of time which can [be] built.
St. Augustine knew what time is .... when asked
he didn't really know.
In sci[ence] this quest[ion] is very clear. [An] astrophys[icist]
doesn't think about time all his life.
The defin[ition] of time [is a] very hard task.
We have dialectical Marxism -- time is [a] form [of] materialism.
25 years ago, Lect[ure] of one phil[osopher]. ______ When English
know time is [a] form of materialism --
It was ____________ [a] phys[icist] asked [a] phil[osopher] about facts
[that] can be understood [from his?] point of view. But Phys[icist] attacked [the] philos[opher]
cannot give sci[entific] facts. Philosopher did not fail his memory.
Phys[icist] and phil[osopher] didn't understand one another. Stud[ent]s
were angry against phil[osopher] because their brains were unclear
because of phil[osophy].
NO, we have[n't?] [a] full concept of time. ---- sc[ience]?
Var. ruin -- crisis in sci[ence] because tunnel
(Barutsky?) hand -- ____________ Now sci[ence] is crazy --
World line -- Greek article _____________ against (TORN?)
topological -- pecularities -- top -- from geometry,
not phys[ics]. Theo[ry] of Rel[ativity] on basis of Topology.
Topology was without _________________ undetermined indefinite construction.
-- To be continued.
- 25 -
My point of view --- Absolute zero of time in not usable. Universe must be created at zero point of
time. We know before what they think about Friedmann. Birth of time was useful. [More to follow.]
- 26 -
Q. The theory about time beginning at one point?
A. Time can't go back[ward?] --- fact of ---
Q. What is nothing?
It is something. If we can't do something wer must not discuss it. This is discussing nothing.
Cosmological nothing may be a vacuum but I am not sure.
Business > Must finish at 1:00 O'clock.
12:50 - Ю. М. СМИРНОВ [Yu. M. Smirnov] ( ) - Hegel's point of view
a ≡ a
a – a = 0
a - 1/a = ∆
Everything, if it is real, much be itself, herself and another Anti I.
About Hegel and his point of view about space. ...
0 ∞ =
Only by some individuals --------
we have some
[No further notes for Smirnov.]
13:00 - _. _. __________ [ ] ( ) Understanding about one moment in time.
Two events, one instant. We cannot define __________ simultaneously. Einstein himself criticized the
middle point of a line. Velocity of light must be determined not by the middle , but only as a constant?
at one site. Simultainiety not matter? in middle of line, Example from Einstein -- train and observer on
- 27 -
[Figure 27-01 to go here.
If the light from A & B meet at the middle ---[the] signals
are simultaneous. but Einstein himself had another
description -- Obs[erver] from train met light earlier.
He catches misteak in Einstein. - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Time is method or condition of being of material
not a form but a method.
[Figure 27-02 to go here.]
We can image two individuals _______________________________ def[inition] of time
Time is a condition of living objects
[Lotta background rumbling]
Velocity was not time. --
Lunch in Canteen
Coffee at Svetlana's
15:05 - _. _. __________ [ ] ( ) _____________________________ [This may have been someone making an announcement.]
15:06 - С. А. ТОЛЧЕЛЬНИКОВА-МУРРИ [Svetlana A.Tolchelnikova-Murri] (Pulkovo Obs.) History of fight of [over]
Historical review of this problem to the end of the 19th century.
Problem began to be discussed - philosophers not in front line,
at least nobody discussed fund[amental]s, practice of humility
- Astronomy's basis of ____________, astrometry too - neither point of view
began [by the] turn of the century. Science of cos[mology] and earth, item phil[osopher]s? not
that of observers in astron[omy]. Ast[ronomer]s came to discuss
[the] problem of time and space epoch ________________
More difficult to understand than ___________________.
- 28 -
It was not a paradigm _______ at first -- of humanity -- before renaissance -- basis of ideals. Newton said
"in the shadow of giants" -- but who ruined something -- had real sense. It was such ruined in your own interests,
mistakes in science. Every point of view came to winter, to absorb everything.
Process of gen[uine] humanity. for us a time for every human individual who has this understanding from birth
but for humanity in general, understanding of process--
Ast[ronomers] dealt with ideal system of scale and time, coordinate systems, depends on liberty of observer --
depends on aim of studies. We can imagine six dimensions of space but ____________ we have
diff[iculty]. -- It is difficult to undersand bodies in space -- it is empty, simple -- cetate? from
space. We couldn't receive the idea of clean space - out of my talent -- space is ideal -- not --. Space was
out of of objects. It was a source of mysteries. Every idea we can understand but we surround one
Berkeley hoped in double world, but today ingreeb? double world.... It is a collective malady. There are more
examples of a double world in the minds of philosophers. Now, she says, Philosophers today who don't want to
deal withs time and space in general. For the first time all that understanding of gen? understand we had to
find its sources.
Our organs of sense sedate? from about ________ that we can know something in the world with [our] senses but
space is not from our senses. It -- human is measure of all things. Sophistic phrase. Herodotus says that
geometry was born in 100 BC when it was needed to measure the earth, but the brain is a very great thi;ng.
____________ how the sense of became understanding begins in grammatical understanding. We take classification
of objects -- we don't do ideals _________________. We can imagine it __. We can receive idea image of all
figures so on abstract understanding of point-line-figures -- such a thing as Copernicus?
Now she reads part of ____________. He used geometrical images (bodies). We see physical bodies -- study them--
get understanding about them. ________________ Astronomy basis of science of understanding time and space.
______________ After geometry, kinematics became a useful tool -- When we can see the history of all
undersanding from antiquity to now we can be proud because _____________.
Projective geometry was method of ancient astronomers and philosophers. Every astronomer understood pecession,
etc. Has his sources in observations -- difficult to measure distances because earth _____ little base [short
- 29 -
Study of ______________ from antiquity to present. Fields disappear when they do their task but it is
___________ general universal measures for understanding. _______________________ .
Measurement of speed and time need a universal standard. Gave them a scale. -- the (develop?) but not
ideal. The first example of distinction is the radius of the earth -- all units from astronomy. Now we
have an atomic standard of time -- the modern scientist and philosophers take at standard as universal unit of
time -- We measure time by the number of days. Every (clock) can give to another generation about time
and space. It is the relationships __________ literature.
Newton was not as simple as we read and hear. He had empty space. Only one philosopher Chesov didn't speak
about Newton. Deformation of _______________
Astronomer's part of _____________ it is ________________. The discussion of problems we can see -- antiquity
to middle ages, St. Thomas Aquinas, etc.
Middle ages, Copernicus had a source of ideas from the middle ages. He selected stars for his catalogue. He
____________ thought that these stars were not moving. Newton's theory, we can see by the forces.
(Every? law)of nature must be proved. Pedological studies -- to be ground ___________.
Even Marhoff (Markov?) and Poincaré were against the view that Newton was very simple.
We have many mistakes in terms. Dangerous mistakes from the nineteenth century. We can see them --
This is a statement from Einstein's "Physics and Reality in inertial system coordinates."
We do measurements by the stake (region) (solid stake) _______________ all our science ruined when we
begin to measure something.
She listed problems in modern astronomy after scientific difficulties,we had war and other social conditions
which interrupt scientific discussions.
Q. What is exactness in astrometry?
A. Measurement of time to 1 x 10-9 seconds. Coordinates to 1 x 10-10 ?
Q. System of Quasars - can it be used?
A. System of time based on pulsars, system of radio coordinates. We have a system but not to be used alone.
This question changed ______________ was not long lived objects.
- 30 -
[14 MAR 1989]
Q.In celestial mechanics with dynamic formulations ________________________?
A. I am not a celestial mechanics --- is possible to build dynamical system of coordinates -- task of
Q. Laws of Newton ______________________________?
A. Newton didn't discuss velocity of gravitation.
Q. (Couldn't hear question.) Newton theory in dynamical bodies - solar system -- units interna[national]
A. Three years ago they decided to study the question of time. What is time in astronomy? Trajectory of
comets need a system of coordinates, such as 100 years ago. We have some systeme of coordinates in
different conditions and times.
15:45 - В. И. СЕКЕРИН [Vladimir I. Sekerin] (Novosibirsk) The role of astronomical observations in ________
space and time.
Roemer, first measurement of velocity of light.
T1 = 1.77 days = 1.5x105 sec. [Orbit Period of Io]
T2 = T1 + 15 sec; T4 = T1 - 15 sec.
T1 × C = λ λ/(C-V) = T2 [Note: λ = 4.5e10 Km.]
T2 + T4
——— = T4 C = ———— V
C + V
T2 - T4
Roemer -- They had to discuss it in Academy of Science.
Cassini didn't want to entertain it.
- 31 -
- 32 -
[14 MAR CONT]
Q1 Gives (sedate?) from his paper - printed relativity dangerous to science and anti Marxist. [Its] teachers
are shamans (charlatans?).
Q2 What is his opinion? (Shamanstoy?) -- Rel[ativity] begins from Marham? only
Q3 Big arguement gets going -- This is apparently a departure from text books.
Q4 Fill in later-- if possible -- Use Sekerin Q4 if entered later.
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
| x x
MC trying to keep things in order.
Sekerin up and down.
16:15 - ЛЕНА _. __________ [Lena ____________] (Pulkovo Obs.) Lena gives her talk. - She has been interpreting for me.
[She is a co-worker with Svetlana.] May get English version from her later.
Lenna (sic) seems to be talking about Svetlana.
Reaction from audience is good.
- 33 -
[14 MAR CONT]
16:35 - ______________ [Manujlov?] ( ) Structure of space and time by __________________________.
[If this is Manujlov then co-author is A.A. Kurbatov.]
This _____________________ was of Rogero __________ Valinsky is interesting figure.
Killed in 1913 but sci[entist] too. _____ view of Space and Time when we
study moving bodies -- electrical points --- St. Charles biblical
text. (very unusual.) Time and space from bible
We have mass of materials -- Stability of stations of bodies
quantum electrodynamic electrons ---- Space with body with
energy. we can change [the] energy of some dynam[ic] systems -
conn[ected] to one another --- Sys[tem] formulate by Boscovich?
He was part? catholic author but sci[entist] (great) too.
The 30 years will be short -- We tried to explain the
the theory of Boscovich becasue [it] is [a] clean
mathematical apparatus (antique!) like Newton (terminology)
law of gravity, Newton --- the state when [a] body
can stay at a place very long --- wants to explore
task of Rochee? body moves [in an] ellipse a & b
More to come.
- 34 -
16:57 - _. _. ВАЗИЛЕВСКИ [_. _. Bazilevsky] (Leningrad) - Bazalevski [in-absentia] paper being read.-- See Svetlana for dtails.
Maxwell's formulae not in connection with relativity.
May be related to Bazelevsky who built the first astrophysical observatory in his home.
When we receive different velocities _____________ law was proved
by exp[eriments] on earth and cosmic________________ space velocity of light
was constant --- was not proved.
Magnetic conduction depends on time
∂ρ/ ∂t is wrong! But Einstein used it anyway.
Bar Варин discussed all th formulas of Eint[ein].
[More to come.]
- 35 -
- 36 -
MC announces that all people are invited to he Hermitage to the golden room, sponsored
by the [Civil] Aviation Institute.
11:25 - И. П. ГАВРИЛОВА [I. P. Gavrelova] ( ) (Lady) Space/Time very important in physics
thinking. Aim of record - give short observations of physics and non-physics understanding of S/T.
This problem connected with physics. Very different approach. This coincidence now real understanding
math contgracting physics of space. ---- Gravitation very important in all problems from physics'
approach. Gauss, Lobichevsky, Einstein tried to understand connection but physics voice and
physics _______________(not speaking voice)
- 42 -
11:57 - Б. РОК [B. ROK] (Poland) Evolution of understanding of our view of properties. Scientific
understanding around the world cannot be a law. Maybe some approach in understanding around the world.
Understanding cannot be absolute - development.
[Svetlana likes this presentation.].... When it gets dogmatized is stops being science.
Rok Q&A Continued.
12:30 - Б. УОЛЛАС [Bryan Wallace] (St. Petersburg Florida, USA) Svetlana introduces him and interprets
[to the assembly].
In 1963 P.A.M. Dirac introduced a new kind of ether. From this developed
straight line of sight photon
circular - electron
RH circle positive
LH circle negative
a dynamic ether -- particle and force all in one material medium moving through empty space. Distance
in space related to motion of material. If it moves in a circle -- periodic -- time like. Space and
time are related this material. They are man-made expansions. They don't exist - only this material.
It was important in my theory to know particle or wave. Radar and radio signals ultimate test. I would
think that any reasonable physicist would realize that analysis of transmission times _____________.
It makes a very big difference between wave vs particle.
1958, 1961 - great test of this. The data (1961) published in Astro____ Journal 1962, 1963.
This figure is a plot of the Astronomical Unit as a function of the radar data. Large variations --
several thousands of Km for the AU. Radar data should have been accurate to ± 1.5 Km. These variations
are not random. 30 day earth-moon period -- and period of earth Venus-Sun. Small variations -- earth's
[daily} rotation. Same data as Doppler shifts.
- 44 -
Measured values of elapsed time of radar signals -- measured vs theoretical.
Same article had a table of round trip travel time and Doppler.
This is Figure 1 of my 1969 paper. I analyzed 1961 data.
[Figure to go here.]
Values from Newcomb's Tables -- Newcomb's tables are based on constant c.
If Einstein is correct the ε and N curves should coincide. -- The G curve is based on c+v.
Cowells? curve method of Newtonian integration -- evidence that Newton's theory matches radar data.
Have received more reprint requests fro this paper -- many from USSR.
Doctor Page helped much but did not want to be co-author. Much correspondence with Irwin Shapiro --
Radar stations around the world sent to Shapiro.
4th Texas Symposium on Relat[ivistic] Astrophysics. Shapiro talk claimed data was consistent
with Einstein. I challenged Shapiro. He admitted that he only analyzed data with the wave model,
c = constant. Admitted large variations.
- 45 -
Admitted math he used would cover up variations. At the meeting he said he would send me any
data I wanted. This is the letter I sent to him on February 13, 1969 asking for more data. I wanted
to show earth's rotational period produces sinusoidal variations with wrong theory. Soviet/US measured
earth different positions simultaneously - 260 Km error -- acc[uracy] to 1.5 Km.
Shapiro did not reply in print to Wallace - done privately. I said, "You offered data - you ignored
in two letters."
I quoted your remarks . . . you cleaned up your errors by [making] one measurement per
day or measured when the planet was not visible.
Letter from Ellen Hollingsworth - Air Force send data, but it was worthless -- It did not have the
daily variations -- Radar sites ~ mile apart.
Theodore Moyer, JPL - equations same as my c+v equations. JPL analyses all current data. He
calls the principle term in his equations "Newtonian Light Time" -- does not acknowledge importance
of the matter.
Published in Science Ethics "The great speed of light in space coverup." Gives all the
details. This was Shapiro's rebuttal -- doesn't say why it was slander. In the next article of the
Journal of Scientific Ethics I published that if I made an error anywhere I would apologize.
[Q & A will be held off until after lunch.] Participants want more details. Intense response from floor.
Lunch - 15 March
- 46 -
14:36 Bryan Wallace Q & A
Q. What was your __________________________
A. Einstein's search for ______________________
A. Science is my religion.
A. Einstein was not a perfect scientist.
A. Einstein was a politician. - Nobody is perfect.
A. [In my] opinion, some of Einstein's work is good. Some is bad. I am a realist.
Q. Determ[ining] A.U. Classical versus Rel[ativistic] pos[ition]
A. JPL, accuracy ± 1 Km. - Exact eval shows the value of sol[ution] somewhere between C and C+V.
A. Lorentz time contraction [is] true.
A. 269 Km Max error [from] opposite sides [of the world]. 69 Km. ≠ 269 Km.
A. Presented to Physics Revew Letters -- First referee said "Go for it!" Made changes --
Second referee ↓↓↓↓. [According to] Editor - Samuel
Goldschmidt, second referee was first referee [but the] type[writers] were different and texts
[were] different (refs) -- Published letter in
Physics Today. At [a] science meeting [the] editor was looking at me when he
thought I didn't see [him] -- Hatred look.
- 47 -
Q. I asked about your relation to Shapiro.
A. Shapiro is evasive (to me). Does not lie - Lies by omission.
Q. [I] read some publication by Shapiro in 1966 -- It was written V+C 1966
Was surprised that Shapiro changed his opinion.
A. Would like to see that.
Q. Welcome to Leningrad.
14:50 - В. В. ЧЕШЕВ [V. V. Cheshev] (Tomsk) - [The] Principle of relativity and [the] problem of [objectivity]
of space and time.
Invest[igate?] model of _______________________ in science [we're] supposed to search for truth but we don't enter
____________________ Sophists against _______________________. Fighting object Relativity, God or Nature.
Ideal in ethics ___________________________________________.
Einstein tells them absolute Space and Time. Newton said same as Einstein. tells what Newton said.
Absolute motion and [the] image of relative motions - (origin[inal]?) principles positions of Galileo and Newton.
Absolute motions phil[osophers] interpretation of Newton's positions _______________ therefore Space
and Time in Newton's theory is [a] theory of motions.
absolute motions -- recognized -- gen[erate]d by forces.
Relative motions -- effects of --- appear observations.
?? Is N[ewton] theory wrong? Theory exp[lain]s _____________ or not?
Newton's theory [has] many exp[planation]s -- OK?
Marchoff's/[Markov's?] position - critics of Newton - pedagogues methodologist - not phys[icists].
Try [to] understand Newton, modern in Newton's - t[heory] of m[echanical] rigid bodies. mach's principle --
more[move?] deeply? better than Mach ____________. (aelius?) Two chapters -- research and analyze only one
question -- What is the ground constructions when [we?] weigh in [the] beginn[ing] of conceptions?
- 48 -
____________ therefore it is, _________________, Poincaré, Goske? from 19th cent[ury].
Poincaré's point of view [was] objective reality. [He] thinks [to] prefer only
[to] have _______ [we] can measure only relations between different bodies -- elements.
Poincaré says system coordinates [that] have [been] located [at] different points of space.
2 systems -- phys relations -- laws [of] equivalence - analysis
One type is Lorentz covariance.
Lorentz and FitzGerald think about const[ructs?] that [are] also covariant.
Poincaré is in rapport with Lorentz.
After Poincaré -- Lorentz says to try to construct a system of equations and transforms
[from] one system to another - Equations don't change.
But, I think he's wrong. Lor[entz] transforms are such math ___________
natural physical constr[ucts],
therefore my position ______ dual _______ supposed the invar[iant] trans[forms]
maybe only constr[uction] from math ______ don't connect to phys[ics].
Chesev's ______ any trans[form] theo[ry] only from physics point of view.
Phys[ics] and math 1718 and partly 19th [century] fought
[thought?] another point of view._____ Math[matical] const[ruct] must have [a]
physical basis. versus Phy[sics] must have a mathematical foundation.
Poincaré's prob[lem] - try[ing] to const[ruct] invariant theory which
invar[iant] theo[ry] true not only for _______, we [know] 1st Newton's law
is true but when C.O.M. [center of mass?] accelerations
1st Newtons's Law C. O. M. [un]steady. Poincaré t[hinks it] [poss[ible]
to constr[uct] theo[ry] ______ mass cent[er] deform invariant
Chesev - quest[ions] What must be [the] methodology in anal[ysis] of
Sugg[est]s that reserrations? - sol[utio]ns of problems -- with all data,
Conclusion -- two positions. Astron[omy] such sci[ ?] which are really
sys[tems] of coord[inate]s _____ many ages, centuries, traditions
continuous_______ When any scient[ist] have a questions
the sci[entist] comes to resolve [the] positions [in] himself, then
diff[ ? ] sci[entist]s come ack to arensic? again _________
[It's] really sensible to come back to class[ical] positions.
Q. We can explain using class[ical] pos[itions].
- 49 -
15:27 - ____________ [Zlodnikov?] ( ) The problem of standardation of words [Notions and Definitions of
Space and Time]
[Cheshev is new MC.]
One hundred and fifty years from Pulkovo's building, in cosmic light this institute shines.
Standardization [is the] main problem in large ________ Not in space only. [The] principle economy of _____________
principle of __________________. Sci[entific] point of view -- words are bad terms for objects -- no science
but soph[isticate]s, bad soph's -- therefore [the] word time has no determined sense.
- 50 -
- 51 -
16:05 - М. Г. СЕРБУЛИНКО [M.G. Serbulenko] (Tomsk) Binary stars.
- 52 -
16:30 -П. Ф. ПАРШИН [Pavel F. Parshin] (Leningrad) Ives experiment.