Observer Notes on the Conference


14-16 March 1989
Pulkovo Observatory, Leningrad, Russia, USSR

Robert S. Fritzius
305 Hillsidde Drive
Starkville, MS, USA

Installed on 23 Feb 2017. Latest Update 04 Apr 2017.

Under Construction!

See Bryan Wallace's Relativity Revolution for a parallel account of the conference.

Page numbers, starting with page 18, are from my trip notes. Non-conference details have been omitted. Where speed-writing compressions had been used, the whole-word completions are shown in [square brackets].

The snipits gleaned from each presentation are far from being a satisfactory record of what was actually said. I was taking notes from an interpreter and am confident that I must have missed at least every other sentence. Hopefully the reader of this document can gain a feel for the gist of the talks by reading between the lines. Q&A sessions are included to show levels of audience interest.

While taking notes during the conference I used a limited form of speed writing. It involves shortened versions of words and phrases. Examples: different = diff, equation = EQ, physics = phys, philosophy = phil, "point of view" = POV, science = sci, "space and time" = s&t. Where these are encountered in producing this document I have restored the original complete words.

- 18 -
14 March - Tuesday

Day One

10:00 - В. К. АБАЛАКИН [V. K. Abalakin], Director of Pulkovo Observatory. - Opening remarks.

Changing times.
[It's] difficult to define time in space. Brown[ian?] theory
became free of time problems. 1000 BC argument.
They understood well about time _________ Japanese and Mexico
eclipses _________tries to find gnosiological roots of these
________ University of __________, North Ireland, Great Britain and USSR.
Maybe [the] conf[erence] [can] be useful for Deutschland.     [A] copy [was] sent
Svetlana told _________________

[a] list of articles to be presented, 30 minutes each.

Ideas of time ______continuous space grief? Time and astrophysics.
Formulation of Philosophical ____________ continuous and time__________.

10:15 - Ю. Б. МОЛЧАНОВ [Yu. B. Molchanov] (Moscow) - Universal and general sense of time.

Diff[erent] points of view give different explanations of time. -- Macro and micro
physics uses time continuity. -- Some break of fm?
phys[ics] notion of time and continuity of time but it
wasn't useful. Need [a] real view - [a] general basis
We must know general _______ attributes _________ how to
differentiate past, pres[ent] and future _______________ Time goes backward?
Diff[erent] logical theories. Time has indifference? struct[ure]
not finite about ___________ point of view. _____________
_______________ was [the] first who understood [the] dialectical sense
of time ______________ then rel[ativity] and quantum theories ____________
interupted or continuous? _________ p[oin]t of view -- time is
continuous and discrete ___________ task __________ Sense of time in
micro-process of phys[ics] today. [From the] p[oin]t of v[iew] [of] DeBroglie,
Mega Volts? many difficulties ____________ sense of ______________ .
M. V. failed in [a] real sense __________ structure of time and
continuity __________ all effects _________ says fact of ___________ We must see
time in another form. Maybe sci[entists] w[ill] find new
lines __________ Maybe sci[entists] w[ill] find lines which failed
[the] phil[osopher]s. Maybe time and continuity [will] catch one another
in diff[erent] ways. ___________ formula of indifference? about
the] work of Euler. ___________ Struct[ure] of cont[inuity] in time has
new lines. Wasn't [the] task of phys[icists] _______ is [a] general task
of all branches of sci[ence]. Was 1st difficult task
_______ From [the] cause of ___________ some effects

- 19 -

we have many images? but continuity may be ruined and changed.
We must find some correlation, ___________When we find one we fail
in another. One coordinate ______________ diff[erent] correlations and time
& continuity _____________ Discuss all the properties of time and its
contact w[ith] continuity __________ 3 coordinates of space and [one of] time.
four coord[inate]s _________ empirical facts. ______________ Theory must have
[a] model for more coordinates than four. Theory about superstrings (SS)
maybe 500 dimensions. 606 and many ____________ SS.
Object has one dimension ___________ Discusses paradox of quest[ion] _________ in
what dim[ension]s continuity ____________ three variants of [the] task.
3 theories. SS[s] have a place _________ values of energy but not
in ours. Theoretical [physicists] use method _______ Save the form [for] these
phenomena. [He] Thinks some effects [are] not observed.
We alt last,______ theory is connected with out/our? description ________ our
world _________ only in theory. Atom? has (universe?) with two
dim[ension]s. _________ We can't prove it w[ith] experiment. It is
connected with synchroton (radiation?) situation.. Mod[el] of time w[ith] two dim[ension]s.
the art? of Time & Time in tuon? ____________
Spin accompanient __________ may be observed material
maybe ______________ radius from minus sign. _________ involoved
theory widrow! _________ time with one dim[ension]. Psychologist
tries to describe time with two dim[ension]s. We don't
understand how time changes w[ith] one dimension. Method
to ___________ in order _________ this _______ no new views. 3 point[s]
of view: child, scien[tists], philosophers. Child

Child didn't understand two or several events simul[taneously].
Knows only one event [witout] synchro[nism]. It is
a model to how we can do for order from two
coord[inate]s to one coord[inate]. Child knows how
one dim[ension] of time is universal. Was one of the potential
way[s] to understand time. We didn't do art[icle?] of
break? __________ different descriptin of continuity w[ith] several
(more than three dim[ension]s) __________ It isn't clear which
property of time and space _________ They must be connected.
Endless __________the quest[ion] [of] invariance, limited & unlimited
it was to think about endless space and time ____________
It wasn't connected |__________ right hand coord[inate]s ____________ must need
many variants. It will be useful to have phil[osopher]s' p[oin]t of view
universal property _____________ didn't disappear _________
the most gen[eral] p[oin]t of view is more useful.

- 20 -

The most interesting things in Sci[ence] and Phil[osophy] _______________
[is] understanding. ______________Universal circle __________ interval [of] past, pres[ent], fut[ure]
[The] Process [is] continuous all the time __________ not [a] prop[erty] of time
but [a] prop[erty] of [the] whole universe. Now ___________ discussed unity
of time and space. Prop[erty] must be universal __________ It is
[a] quantity and quality [which] must be discussed in philos[ophy].
Most general principle:
correlated time and space.
His book about conn[ecting] prob[lem]s of time and space
isn't in sales. Has only 100 copies.

Q & A

Q. (Smirnov) ____ Interested in Law of preservation.
Can't answer. (Next Question)
Didn't understand second question.

Q. (Smirnov - second question) ________________________
A. First question was not replied [to] -- Second unknown. Impossible to understand it.

Q. ____________ theoretical alchemists?
A. We must attack this problem. Don't want to be an alchemist. Suppose physics has found problem but not
      Psychology, soc[iology], phy[ ? ], etc.

Q. About details [of] theories of geometries of many dimensions connected with this theory and [the] theory of
    question is, "What is your own point of view?"
A. Don't have one.

Q. ________ studied his apologetics _____________
A. What is [the] aim [of] your ideas [regarding] time and space in modern cosm[ology]?


- 21 -

_____ - _. _. ГРИББ [ _. _. Grebb] ( ) - Time is a property of gravitational field.

Time has _______ goes with diff[erent] vel[ocitie]s in diff[erent] sys[tems] of coord[inate]s.
Is time _________ wants to build one another (combine with?)
____ princ[iple]s of quantum theory with theor[y] of grav[itation]
by Einst[ein] [who] believed in [a] world with four dim[ension]s. (invention)
Level man is one line. Riemann has his own lines
-- point of the beginning - Einst[ein] ______ determinist
-- was P[oin]t of V[iew] of St. Augustine ________ present object and future
objects ____ When we saw diff[erent] presence ____________
for future objects we have memory ____________ We were blind
diff[erent] f[ro]m quant[um] theory. _________ when we take dime[nsions]
we ________ stopped [the] event.
To be continued.

- 22 -

- 23 -

- 24 -

(Speaker 3)
_____ - А. Д. ЧЕРНИН [A. D. Chernin] (Leningrad) - Continuity and time in modern astrophysics.

We haven't a determ[ination] of time which can [be] built.
St. Augustine knew what time is .... when asked
he didn't really know.

In sci[ence] this quest[ion] is very clear. [An] astrophys[icist]
doesn't think about time all his life.
The defin[ition] of time [is a] very hard task.
We have dialectical Marxism -- time is [a] form [of] materialism.
25 years ago, Lect[ure] of one phil[osopher]. ______ When English
know time is [a] form of materialism --
It was ____________ [a] phys[icist] [who] asked [a] phil[osopher] about facts
[that] can be understood [from his?] point of view. But [the] Phys[icist] attacked [the] philos[opher]
cannot give sci[entific] facts. [The] Philosopher did not fail his memory.
Phys[icist] and phil[osopher] didn't understand one another. Stud[ent]s
were angry against phil[osopher] because their brains were unclear
because of phil[osophy].

NO, we have[n't?] [a] full concept of time. ---- sc[ience]?
Var. ruin -- crisis in sci[ence] because tunnel
(Barutsky?) hand -- ____________ Now sci[ence] is crazy --
World line -- Greek article _____________ against (TORN?)
topological -- pecularities -- top -- from geometry,
not phys[ics]. Theo[ry] of Rel[ativity] on basis of Topology.
Topology was without _________________ undetermined indefinite construction.
-- To be continued.

- 25 -

My point of view --- Absolute zero of time in not usable. Universe must be created at zero point of time. We know before what they think about Friedmann. Birth of time was useful. [More to follow.]

- 26 -

Q. The theory about time beginning at one point?
A. Time can't go back[ward?] --- fact of ---

Q. What is nothing?
It is something. If we can't do something we must not discuss it. This is discussing nothing. Cosmological nothing may be a vacuum but I am not sure.

Business   >   Must finish at 1:00 O'clock.

12:50 - Ю. М. СМИРНОВ [Yu. M. Smirnov] ( ) - Hegel's point of view

a ≡ a
a – a = 0
a - 1/a = ∆

Everything, if it is real, much be itself, herself
and another ___________ Anti I
About Hegel and his p[oin]t of vue about space.

0 ∞ =
Only by some individuals ______________________
we have some

[No further notes for Smirnov.]

13:00 - _. _. __________ [ ] ( ) Understanding about one moment in time _______
2 events, one moment. We can not define ________________
simultaneously ____________ Einst[ein] himself criticized
the midd[le] p[oin]t of a line ________ [The] Velocity of light [must] be determined
not [by the] middle, but only as a cost? at one site.
Simul[tainiety] [is] not [a] matter? __________in [the] middle of [a] line
[An] Ex[ample] from Einst[ein] ________________ train and obs[erver] at road


- 27 -


If the light f[ro]m A and B meet at [the] middle [the] signals
are simultaneous but Einst[ein] himself had another
description _________ Obs[erver] f[ro]m train met light earlier.
He catch[es] [a] misteak in Einstein. ________________________
Time is [a] method or condition of being of material
not a form but a method.

We can image two individuals _______________________________ def[inition] of time
Time is a condition of living objects

[Lotta background rumbling]
Velocity was not time. ________________
[End of presentation.]

Lunch in Canteen
Coffee at Svetlana's

15:05 - _. _. __________ [ ] ( ) _____________________________ [This may have been someone making an announcement.]

15:06 - С. А. ТОЛЧЕЛЬНИКОВА-МУРРИ [Svetlana A.Tolchelnikova-Murri] (Pulkovo Obs.) History of fight of [over] different versions
Historical review of this problem to the end of the 19th century.
Problem began to be discussed - philosophers not in front line,
at least nobody discussed fund[amental]s, practice of humility
- Astronomy's basis of ____________, astrometry too - neither point of view
began [by the] turn of the century. Science of cos[mology] and earth, item phil[osopher]s? not
that of observers in astron[omy]. Ast[ronomer]s came to discuss
[the] problem of time and space epoch ________________
More difficult to understand than ___________________.

- 28 -

    It was not a paradigm _______ at first -- of humanity -- before renaissance -- basis of ideals. Newton said "in the shadow of giants" -- but who ruined something -- had real sense. It was such ruined in your own interests, mistakes in science. Every point of view came to winter, to absorb everything.
    Process of gen[uine] humanity. for us a time for every human individual who has this understanding from birth but for humanity in general, understanding of process--
    Ast[ronomers] dealt with ideal system of scale and time, coordinate systems, depends on liberty of observer -- depends on aim of studies. We can imagine six dimensions of space but ____________ we have diff[iculty]. -- It is difficult to understand bodies in space -- it is empty, simple -- cetate? from space. We couldn't receive the idea of clean space - out of my talent -- space is ideal -- not --. Space was out of of objects. It was a source of mysteries. Every idea we can understand but we surround one another.
    Berkeley hoped in double world, but today ingreeb? double world.... It is a collective malady. There are more examples of a double world in the minds of philosophers. {Now, she says}, Philosophers today who don't want to deal withs time and space in general. For the first time all that understanding of gen? understand we had to find its sources.
    Our organs of sense sedate? from about ________ that we can know something in the world with [our] senses but space is not from our senses. It -- human[ity] is [the] measure of all things. Sophistic phrase. Herodotus says that geometry was born in 100 BC when it was needed to measure the earth, but the brain is a very great thing. ____________ how the sense of became understanding begins in grammatical understanding. We take classification of objects -- we don't do ideals _________________. We can imagine it __. We can receive idea image of all figures so on abstract understanding of point-line-figures -- such a thing as Copernicus?
    {Now she reads part of ____________.} He used geometrical images (bodies). We see physical bodies -- study them-- get understanding about them. ________________ Astronomy basis of science of understanding time and space. ______________ After geometry, kinematics became a useful tool -- When we can see the history of all undersanding from antiquity to now we can be proud because _____________.
    Projective geometry was [a] method of ancient astronomers and philosophers. Every astronomer understood precession, etc. Has his sources in observations -- difficult to measure distances because earth __________ little base [short baseline?].

- 29 -

    Study of ______________ from antiquity to present. Fields disappear when they do their task but it is ___________ general universal measures for understanding. _______________________ .
    Measurement of speed and time need a universal standard. Gave them a scale. -- the (develop?) but not ideal. The first example of distinction is the radius of the earth -- all units from astronomy. Now we have an atomic standard of time -- the modern scientist and philosophers take at standard as universal unit of time -- We measure time by the number of days. Every (clock) can give to another generation about time and space. It is the relationships __________ literature.
    Newton was not as simple as we read and hear. He had empty space. Only one philosopher Chesov didn't speak about Newton. Deformation of _______________
    Astronomer's part of _____________ it is ________________. The discussion of problems we can see -- antiquity to middle ages, St. Thomas Aquinas, etc.
    Middle ages, Copernicus had a source of ideas from the middle ages. He selected stars for his catalogue. He ____________ thought that these stars were not moving. Newton's theory, we can see by the forces. (Every? law)of nature must be proved. Pedological studies -- to be ground ___________.
    Even Marhoff (Markov?) and Poincaré were against the view that Newton was very simple.
    We have many mistakes in terms. Dangerous mistakes from the nineteenth century. We can see them -- This is a statement from Einstein's "Physics and Reality in inertial system coordinates." We do measurements by the stake (region) (solid stake) _______________ all our science [was] ruined when we begin to measure something.
    {She listed problems in modern astronomy after scientific difficulties}, we had war and other social conditions which interrupt scientific discussions.


Q. What is exactness in astrometry?
A. Measurement of time to 1 x 10-9 seconds. Coordinates to 1 x 10-10 ?

Q. System of Quasars - can it be used?
A. System of time based on pulsars, system of radio coordinates. We have a system but not to be used alone. This question changed ______________ was not long lived objects.

- 30 -

[14 MAR 1989]
Q.In celestial mechanics with dynamic formulations ________________________?
A. I am not a celestial mechanics --- is possible to build dynamical system of coordinates -- task of Kashee

Q. Laws of Newton ______________________________?
A. Newton didn't discuss [the] velocity of gravitation.

Q. (Couldn't hear [your] question.) Newton theory in dynamical bodies - solar system -- units interna[national] astro[nomical] union___________?
A. Three years ago they decided to study the question of time. What is time in astronomy? Trajector[ies] of comets need a system of coordinates, such as 100 years ago. We have some sys[tems] of coordinates in different conditions and times.

15:45 - В. И. СЕКЕРИН [Vladimir I. Sekerin] (Novosibirsk) The role of Astronomical Observations in [Forming the Concepts of] Space and Time.

first measurement of velocity of light.

T1 = 1.77 days = 1.5x105 sec.   [Orbit Period of Io]

T2 = T1 + 15 sec;   T4 = T1 - 15 sec.

T1 × C = λ     λ/(C-V) = T2         [Note: λ = 4.5e10 Km.]

   λ                               T2 + T4
——— = T4       C = ———— V
C + V                           T2 - T4

Roemer -- They had to discuss it in Academy of Science. Cassini didn't want to entertain it.

- 31 -


- 32 -

Q1 Gives (sedate?) from his paper - printed -- relativity [is] dangerous to science and anti Marxist. [Its] teachers are shamans (charlatans?).

Q2 What is his opinion? (Shamanstoy?) -- Rel[ativity] begins from Marham? only

Q3 Big argument gets going -- This is apparently a departure from text books.

Q4 Fill in later-- if possible -- Use Sekerin Q4 if entered later.

 |   x                                                                               x
 |       x                                                                       x
 |           x                                                               x
 |               x                                                       x
 |                   x                                               x
 |                       x                                       x
 |                           x                               x
 |                               x                       x  
 |                                   x               x
 |                                       x       x
 |                                           x
 |                                       x       x
 |                                   x               x
 |                               x                       x
 |                           x                               x
 |                       x                                       x
 |                   x                                               x
 |               x                                                       x
 |           x                                                               x
 |       x                                                                       x
 |   x                                                                               x

MC trying to keep things in order.

Sekerin up and down.

16:15 - ЛЕНА _. __________ [Lena ____________] (Pulkovo Obs.) {Lena gives her talk. - She has been interpreting for me.
[She is a co-worker with Svetlana.] May get English version from her later.}


{Lena seems to be talking about Svetlana.}
{Reaction from audience is good.}

{I have no interpreter right now.}

[End of presentation.]

- 33 -

16:35 - ______________ [Manujlov?] ( ) Structure of space and time by __________________________.
{If this is Manujlov then the co-author is A.A. Kurbatov.}
This _____________________ was of Rogero __________ Valinsky is interesting figure.
Killed in 1913 but sci[entist] too. _____ view of Space and Time when we
study moving bodies -- electrical points --- St. Charles biblical
text. {very unusual.} Time and space from bible
We have mass of materials -- Stability of stations of bodies
quantum electrodynamic electrons ---- Space with [a] body with
energy. we can change [the] energy of some dynam[ic] systems -
conn[ected] to one another --- Sys[tem] formulate[d] by Boscovich?
He was part? catholic author but sci[entist] (great) too.
The 30 years will be short -- We tried to explain the
the theory of Boscovich becasue [it] is [a] clean
mathematical apparatus (antique!) like Newton (terminology)
law of gravity, Newton --- the state when [a] body
can stay at a place very long --- wants to explore
task of Rochee? body moves [in an] ellipse a & b

More to come.

- 34 -

[14 MAR CONT.]
16:57 - _. _. ВАЗИЛЕВСКИ [_. _. Bazilevsky] (Leningrad) - Bazalevski {in-absentia] paper being read.-- See Svetlana for details.}

Maxwell's formulae [are] not in connection with relativity.

{May be related to Bazelevsky who built the first astrophysical observatory in his home.}

When we receive different velocities _____________ law was proved
by exp[eriments] on earth and cosmic________________ space [the] velocity of light
was constant --- was not proved.
Magnetic conduction depends on time

      ∂ρ/ ∂t is wrong! But Einstein used it anyway.

Bar Варин discussed all the formulas of Einst[ein].

[More to come.]


- 35 -

{Shows Poster with Maxwell's laws.}

Maxwell made a mistake - now is inaccurate conclusion
shows up in four coord[inate]s     [Space and Time]
these f[un]ct[ion]s ____ moving light -- We change sys[tems] of coord[inates]
velocity of wave -- he received from Galileo
and it is similar to Newton.
speed of light     velocity moving sys[tem] of coord[inate]s     C-V
he moves like light. Galileo is real science and
we must love him -- He was a modern sci[entist].
[more to come.]

- 36 -

Lady Judge (Olga) [announces that] all people are invited to [the] Hermitage, to [the] golden room
[sponsored by ____________________ from [the Civil] Aviation Institute.

Ц   ts
17:33 - ______________ [ Arzichofsky ] ( ) Speaking fast!

____________ sure that MM exp[eriment] was not negative.
interp[retation] of MM exp[eriment] was wrong. Mt. Wilson
was proved that 10 Km/sec diff[erence] [was] found & 6 Km/sec
[in the?] second exp[eriment].
supposed sure mistakes in interp[retation] [of the] MM exp[eriment]   sure
this exp[eriment] was right. _________ read citation[s] (from diff[erent] authors) then burned it.
Made [an] analysis [of] all the exp[eriment]s before 100 years --
now in print. Theory of grav[itation] is quite right but
QM is another matter. This Mech[?] deals with
unsolved numbers     little bodies -- understanding of
char[acteristic]s of ____________ paradox.
[More to come.]

- 37 -

17:52 - Person from Institute of Informatics _________________________________

Time is a f[un]ct[ion] of many factors.
We can think by the help of many factors _________________________________
We can have many sys[tems] & all of them have their own time
grav[itational] field at one point of space & a diff[erent] place diff[erent]
localitiy of time ___________ [a] gun which pushes elec[trons]
will receive electr[ical?] pix & will receive max and min
the event of phenom[ena] of electron will disappear [in] this event
process of changes of charge -- is of the meth[od] of meas[urement] of time
time is __________________ we can rule time. ____________________________ .
If we can warm water in some model but we
receive [the] rule of time (disinformation?) wants to
change what is time, goes to a place then changes to
a diff[erent] set -- by the boiling [of] water. Water to
gas -- gas to water___

- 38 -

18:00 - House-keeping details - something being read by lady judge.

Round table give and take

We can see today social experiments
We have Atomic station & bombs that worked by the theory of
relativity ______ don't understand ------ FIGHT!
dangersous person who made the mouse for his friends
Biology - genetics & so in our physics p[oin]t of v[iew] in Sci[ence]
became political

Wrap up by lady judge [Olga 3/18/89] "We have to go home."

Sekerin puts in a last punch - defending Roemer's experiment (from earlier question)

[Outside of Conference details omitted.]

- 39 -
15 March - Wednesday

Day Two

Approximately 50 attendees.

11:05 - _____________ [Troisky] ( ) Astro-theoretics?
Source of l[igh]t standing ______________ space time voices it
curves, appl[ied?] as to how it curves. _______________
Simple source, [at a]? very great dist[ance] _____________ studying with respect
to galaxies. __________________________
How to change dim[ension]s when [an] object is dismissed. _____________2nd post
Voice of Space and time. [It] Dep[ends] [on the] dist[ance] to [the] source out difficult
to study ________________energy of sources has changed. ____________
Voices Space and time ____________________ used as a test.


Taken in [the] evolution of gal[axies] obs[served] as [a] f[un]ct[ion] of time & dist[ance],
bounding to temp[erature]s of objects. ______ Temp[erature]s fall, therefore
[the] brilliance of souirces fall also.

evolution ___________

- 40 -

[Troisky continued.]



__________ can't tell how much space curves.


- 41 -

11:25 - И. П. ГАВРИЛОВА [I. P. Gavrelova] ( ) Space/Time [is] very important in physics thinking. Aim of record - give short observations of physics and non-physics understanding of space/time This problem connected with physics. Very different approach. This coincidence now real understanding math contracting physics of space. ---- Gravitation [is] very important in all problems from physics' approach. Gauss, Lobichevsky, Einstein tried to understand connection but physics voice and physics _______________(not speaking voice)

- 42 -

11:57 - Б. РОК [B. ROK] (Poland) Evolution of understanding of our view of properties. Scientific understanding around the world cannot be a law. Maybe some approach in understanding around the world. Understanding cannot be absolute - development. {Svetlana likes this presentation.} ___________When it gets dogmatized is stops being science.

Rok Q&A


Rok Q&A Continued.

12:30 - Б. УОЛЛАС [Bryan Wallace] (St. Petersburg Florida, USA) {Svetlana introduces him and interprets [to the assembly]}.

In 1963 P.A.M. Dirac introduced a new kind of ether. From this developed
straight line of sight photon
circular - electron
RH circle positive
LH circle negative
a dynamic ether -- particle and force all in one
material medium moving through empty space.
distance in space related to motion of material.
If it moves in [a] circle ________ periodic _______ time-like.
Space and time are related this mat[erial]. They are man-
made expansions. They don't exist ________ only this mat[erial].
It was important in my theory to know part[icle] or wave.
Radar and radio sign[als] ___________ultimate test. I would think
that any reasonable phys[icist] would realize [that] analysis of
transmission times _______________________.
It makes a very big diff[erence] between wave vs part[icle].
1st thing [I] realized _____________ 1958, 1961 ________ great test of this.
The data (1961) published in Astro____ Journal, 1962, 1963.
This figure is [a] plot of [the] AU as [a] f[un]ct[ion] of radar data.
Large variations ___________ several thousands of Km for the AU.
Radar data should have been accurate to ± 1.5 Km.
These variations [were] not random.
30 day earth-moon period _______ and [the] period of earth Venus-Sun.
Small var[iation]s _________ earth's [daily} rot[ation].
Same data as Doppler shifts.

- 44 -

Measured values of elapsed time of radar signals
meas[ured] vs theor[etical].
actual vs theoretical

[The] Same art[icle] had [a] table of r[ou]nd trip travel time and Dopp[ler]

This is Fig[ure] 1 of my 1969 paper._________ I analyzed 1961 data.

1961 data analysis

Val[ue]s [are] from Newcomb's Tables -- Newcomb's tables [are] based on const[ant] c.

If Einst[ein] is correct [the] ε and N curves should coincide.
The G curve [is] based on c+v.

Cowell's method of Newtonian integration _____________
Evidence that Newton's theory matches Radar data
[I] Have r[eceive]d more reprint req[uest]s for this paper __________
Many have come from [the] USSR.

Doctor Page helped [me] much but did not want to be
[a] co-author.
[I had] Much corresp[ondence] w[ith] Irwin Shapiro --
Radar sta[tion]s around [the] world sent ________________ to Shapiro.

[At the] 4th Texas Symposium on Relat[ivistic] Astrophys[ics]
[a] Shapiro talk claimed [that the] data [was] consistent w[ith] Einstein,
I challenged Shapiro. He admitted [that he] only analyzed
data with [the] wave model, c = const[ant].
[He] Admitted large var[iation]s.

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[He] admitted [that the] math he used would cover up var[iation]s.
At the meeting _____________ he said he would send me any data
I wanted. This is the lett[er] I sent to him [on] Feb[ruary] 13, 1969
asking for more data.
I wanted to show [that] earth's rotation[al] period produce[s]
sinusoidal variations with [the] wrong theory.
Soviet/US [stations] meas[ured] [the] earth [at] different positions simultaneously
[a] 260 Km error -- [with] acc[uracy] to 1.5 Km.

Shapiro did not reply in print to Wallace - done privately.
I said,
"You offered data - you ignored ____________ [in?] two letters."

I quoted your remarks ___________________ you cleaned up your
errors by [making] one meas[urement] [per]day or measured when [the] planet was
not vis[ible].

Letter from Ellen Hollingsworth ____________ Air Force, sent data, but
it was worthless -- It did not have the daily variations _________
Radar sites ~ mile apart.

Theodore Moyer, JPL _________ equations same as my c+v eq[uatio]ns.
JPL analyzes all current data. He calls [the] principle
term in his equ[atio]n "Newtonian Light Time" -- does
not acknowledge [the] importance of the matter.

Publ[ished] in [the Journal of] Sci[entific] Ethics "The great speed of light in
space coverup." Gives all [the] details.
This was Shapiro's rebuttal ________ doesn't say why
it was slander.
In the next article of [the] Journ[al] of Sci[entific] Eth[ics] I published that
if I made an error anywhere I would apologize.
[Q & A will be held off until after lunch.] Participants want more details. Intense response
from floor.

Lunch - 15 March


- 46 -

14:36 Bryan Wallace Q & A

Q. What was your __________________________
A. _______________________________________

Q. _______________________________________
A. Einstein's search for ______________________

Q. _______________________________________
A. Science is my religion.

Q. _______________________________________
A. Einstein was not a perfect scientist.

Q. _______________________________________
A. Einstein was a politician. - Nobody is perfect.

Q. _______________________________________
A. [In my] opinion, some of Einstein's work is good. Some is bad. I am a realist.

Q. Determ[ining] A.U. Classical versus Rel[ativistic] pos[ition]
A. JPL, accuracy ± 1 Km. - Exact eval shows the value of sol[ution] somewhere between C and C+V.

Q. ______________________________________
A. Lorentz time contraction [is] true.

Q. ______________________________________
A. 269 Km Max error [from] opposite sides [of the world].     69 Km.   269 Km.

Q. ______________________________________
A. ______________________________________

Q. ______________________________________
A. Presented to Physics Revew Letters -- First referee said "Go for it!" Made changes -- Second referee ↓↓↓↓. [According to] Editor - Samuel
    Goldschmidt, second referee was first referee [but the] type[writers] were different and texts [were] different (refs) -- Published letter in
    Physics Today. At [a] science meeting [the] editor was looking at me when he thought I didn't see [him] -- Hatred look.

- 47 -

Q. I asked about your relation to Shapiro.
A. Shapiro is evasive (to me). Does not lie - Lies by omission.

Q. [I] read some publication by Shapiro in 1966 -- It was written     V+C       1966
    Was surprised that Shapiro changed his opinion.                                 3C ST
A. Would like to see that.

Q. Welcome to Leningrad.
A. ________________________________

14:50 - В. В. ЧЕШЕВ [V. V. Cheshev] (Tomsk) - [The] Principle of relativity and [the] problem of [objectivity] of space and time.

Invest[igate? the] model of __________________
In sci[ence] [we're] supp[osed] [to] search for truth but we don't enter into
Sophistics against _______________________.
Fighting object[ive] Relativity, God or Nature.
Ideal in ethics
E[instein] tells them abs[olute] S[pace] & T[ime]. Newton _________ said same as T
tells what Newton said.
Not correct.
Abs[olute] motion & [the] image of rel[ative] motions - (origin[inal]?) princip[le]s
positions of Galileo & Newton. _________ Abs[olute] motions
phil[osophers] interp[retation] of Newton's pos[itio]ns _______
therefore S/T in Newt[on]'s theory is [a] theory of motions
Abs[olute] motions recognized ______ gen[erate]d by forces.
Rel[ative] motions __________ effects of[,] appear [in] observations.
We see motions imm? abs[olute] mot[ion]s. We can't recognize
inertial motions or absolute motions.
?? Is N[ewton] theory wrong? Theory exps, or not?
Newton's theory [has] many exp[planation]s ___________ OK?
Marchoff's/[Markov's?] pos[itio]n - crit[ic]s of Newton _____ pedagogues methodologist[s]
not phys[icists].
Try [to] understand Newton, modern ______ in Newton's ______
t[heory] of m[echanically] rigid bodies. Mach's prin[ciple] _______ more[move?] deeply
better than Mach ____________. (aelius?) 2 chap[ter]s
research & analyze only one quest[ion] ________ What is the
ground constr[uction]s which [we?] weigh in [the] beginn[ing] of conceptions?

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____________ therefore it is, _________________, Poincaré, Goske? from 19th cent[ury].
Poincaré's point of view [was] objective reality. [He] thinks [to] prefer only
[to] have _______ [we] can measure only relations between different bodies -- elements.
Poincaré says system coordinates [that] have [been] located [at] different points of space.
2 systems -- phys relations -- laws [of] equivalence - analysis
of covariance.
One type is Lorentz covariance.
Lorentz and FitzGerald think about const[ructs?] that [are] also covariant.
Poincaré is in rapport with Lorentz.
After Poincaré -- Lorentz says to try to construct a system of equations and transforms
[from] one system to another - Equations don't change.
But, I think he's wrong. Lor[entz] transforms are such math ___________
natural physical constr[ucts],
therefore my position ______ dual _______ supposed the invar[iant] trans[forms]
maybe only constr[uction] from math ______ don't connect to phys[ics].
Chesev's ______ any trans[form] theo[ry] only from physics point of view.
Phys[ics] and math 1718 and partly 19th [century] fought
[thought?] another point of view._____ Math[matical] const[ruct] must have [a]
physical basis.
versus Phy[sics] must have a mathematical foundation.
Poincaré's prob[lem] - try[ing] to const[ruct] invariant theory which
invar[iant] theo[ry] true not only for _______, we [know] 1st Newton's law
is true but when C.O.M. [center of mass?] accelerations
1st Newtons's Law C. O. M. [un]steady. Poincaré t[hinks it] [poss[ible]
to constr[uct] theo[ry] ______ mass cent[er] deform invariant
occasions. ____________
Chesev - quest[ions] What must be [the] methodology in anal[ysis] of
S/T problems?
Sugg[est]s that reserrations? - sol[utio]ns of problems -- with all data,
empirical way. Conclusion -- two positions. Astron[omy] such sci[ ?] which are really
sys[tems] of coord[inate]s _____ many ages, centuries, traditions
continuous_______ When any scient[ist] have a questions
the sci[entist] comes to resolve [the] positions [in] himself, then
diff[ ? ] sci[entist]s come ack to arensic? again _________
[It's] really sensible to come back to class[ical] positions.
Q. We can explain using class[ical] pos[itions].

- 49 -

15:27 [Zlodnikov?] ( ) [Enthusiastic!] The problem of standardation
of words.     One hundred and fifty years from Pulkovo's building
in cosmic light this institute shines.

Standardization [is the] main problem in large ________ Not in space only.
[The] principle economy of _____________
principle of __________________.
Sci[entific] P[oint] O[f] V[iew] -- words are bad terms for objects -- no sci[ence]
but soph[isticate]s, bad soph's therefore
[the] word time has no determined sense. ______________
He returns to 19th cen[tury] & logistics
S/T is [a] category in logic __________________
Logic came from Aristotle _____________________
Analytics [came?] second
Word = image of actions / in Greek phil[osophy] logos and ergos
Sandard[ized] meas[ure]s of S/T [were] construct[ed] in antiquity
Pedago ____________________ not only Aristotle
Time is a number of continuous motion (measure)
{Svetlana says its good. He's quoting Aristotle.}
Time going fast or slow then you change the
word -- against what background?
{folks are getting up! With it!}
In antiq[uity] [there were] no abstr[act] numbers ______________ concrete thought.
4, 5 objects ____________________ interval of time is also
Practical values come from measure[ment]s
[The] Problem is ques[tion?] and meas[urement] of time are astron[nomy] prob[lem].

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- 51 -

16:05 - М. Г. СЕРБУЛИНКО [M.G. Serbulenko] (Tomsk) Binary stars.

- 52 -

16:30 -П. Ф. ПАРШИН [Pavel F. Parshin] (Leningrad) Ives experiment.

- 53 -

17:00 - ____________ [Alexandra] (Pulkovo)

- 54 -

17:?? - ____________ [Azjukkowski? ] ( ) Captain Butusov interpreting

- 55 -

17:35 - ____________ [G. Golokolov]( ) Evgeny Petrovich?

- 56 -

17:47 - ____________ [Belotosky] ( )

18:00 - 30 Minute talks are over. Floor is now opened to discussion, typically 10 minutes per speaker.

- 57 -

18:20 - ____________ [Smirnov?] addresses the group.

18:24 - ____________ [ ] ( ) Twin Paradox

18:30 - П. Ф. ПАРШИН [Pavel Parshin] (Leningrad)

18:34 - ____________ [ ] ( ) Ecology problem - Death of Humanity in 25 years! Chernobyl and so forth. Ecology catastrophe.

18:38 - K. P. БУТСОВ [K. R. Butusov] ( ) Russian Physics

- 58 -

18:44 - ____________ [Vladimir Azjukowski] ( ) Ether flux converging on earth?

18:48 - К. В. МАНУЙЛОВ [Constantine V. Manujlov] (Leningrad)

18:54 - ____________ [ ] ( ) Problem of space and time is a practical problem

19:00 - ____________ [Galina Vasiljeva?] ( )

19:02 - K. P. БУТУСОВ [Butusov] ( )

19:03 - ____________ [ ] ( ) We have listened 1 - 2 hours...

19:05 - FINI!

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