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Measuring the Universe - Part 3
Lundmark Knut, "Internal Motions of Messier 33," ApJ, 63,
67 (1926) -
[T]he motion of translation--the total proper motion of the nebula--was
found to be
= -0.0015 arcsec/year;
= -0.0050 arcsec/year, which
is in good agreement with the corresponding values of van Maanen, namely
+0.0034 arcsec/year and -0.0044 arcsec/year, respectively. Internal motions
were found to be: rotation = +0.0016 arcsec/year (NESW), and
radial = - 0.0057 arcsec/year (outward). [The negative
outward measurement may be interpreted as representing an inflowing motion.]
Hubble, E.P., "No. 310. A spiral nebula as a stellar system. Messier 33,"
Contributions from the Mount Wilson Observatory / Carnegie Institution
of Washington, 310, pp. 1-39 (1926) -
Hubble, E. P., "The Spiral M33 as a Stellar System," ApJ, 63,
236-274 (1926) -
The present contribution to the subject consists of observational data
concerning the particular spiral, Messier 33. The data lead to a
conception of the object as an isolated system of stars and nebulae,
lying far outside the limits of the galactic system. To this extent
the evidence favors the island-universe hypothesis, but, in
respect to dimensions and luminosity, the spiral is more closely
comparable with the Magellanic Clouds than with the galactic system
itself. [p. 237. Also, see pp. 273-274.]
The ratio of minor to major axis appears to be about 2:3; the tilt is
therefore about 42°, and the differential velocity of 200 km/sec can be
interpreted as the radial component of a linear velocity of rotation
about the nucleus of
200 sec 42° = 270 km/sec.
This corresponds to a period of rotation on the order of twenty million
years at a distance of 1.83 x 108 astronomical units from the
nucleus. ... [p. 268]
Six stars within 11' of the nucleus show conspicuous proper motions on the
blink comparator on plates of fifteen years' interval made with the 60-inch
reflector. The photographic magnitudes of two have been measured as 17.3
and 18.25, the proper motions being of the order of 13" and 10" per century,
both toward the south-following quadrant. The brighter of these is No. 367
in van Maanen's measures of Messier 33 for rotation[*] (Mt. Wilson
Contr., No. 260; Astrophysical Journal, 57, 264, 1923).
The magnitudes of the other four are estimated to be 14.2, 15.8, 16.4,
and 17.8, with proper motions between 5" and 10" per century. [p.269.]
*[Strictly speaking, van Maanen was not looking for rotation, rather
he was seeking to characterize internal motions whatever their form. To
say that van Maanen was doing measures of rotation is to ignore the
thrust of his investigation. Further evidence of a lack of communication
between Hubble and van Maanen (or something worse) can be seen on page 270.
There, Hubble concludes that it is probable that such rapid stars
(as mentioned in the preceding paragraph) belong to the nebula. Actually,
van Maanen omitted his star No. 367 from the internal motions analysis
because its proper motion was so large that he felt it couldn't be
part of the nebula. See the last sentence on page 265 of van Maanen's
(1923) article in Part 2, above.]
[See: Messier 33 Internal Motions on this website.
Lundmark, Knut, "Studies of Anagalactic Nebulae - First Paper,"
Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, Volumen
Extra Ordinem Editum, (1927).
Van Maanen, A., "Investigations on Proper Motion - Twelfth Paper:
The Proper Motions and Internal Motions of Messier 2, 13, and 56,"
Contributions from the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory, 66,
89-112, (1927); ApJ, 66, 89 (1927) -
Lindblad, Bertil, "On the Nature of the Spiral Nebulae," MNRAS,
87, 420-426 (1927) -
In his Leçons sur les Hypothèses Cosmogoniques, p. 262, Poincaré
attempts to draw a parallel between the figure of a rotating stellar
system and the figure of equilibrium of a rotating incompressible liquid.
The stellar system is considered in the picture of a gaseous mass with
stars as molecules. ...
The possibility of explaining the spiral arms rests in this case on
principles quite different from those suggested by Poincaré. Our point
of departure is simply a theorem on the motion of a material particle
under gravitation in the equatorial plane outside of a homogeneous
spheroid. ... [p. 422]
A comparison between such orbits [described above] and the spiral arms of
the nebulæ Messier 33 and 81 was made in the paper cited. ...[p. 423]
[This may be Hubble, E., ApJ, 64, 349 (1926) or it may refer
to an unpublished statistical investigation by Lundmark. Checking.]
It may be remarked that the arms evidently wind out form the "mother-system"
in the same direction as the rotation of the system, while the opposite is
the case according to the suggestion by Poincaré.
The present theory connects a multitude of facts concerning our stellar
system [the Milky Way galaxy] and the spirals, which have only been touched
upon very incompletely in this exposition of the general principles. With
full appreciation of the beautiful* theory of Jeans, I have therefore
ventured to give the present account of the theory which treats the problem
from an older, though considerably modified, point of view. [p. 426]
* [Beware of unrequired adjectives!] [This seems to be one of the seminal
papers in the development of one of
cosmology's missing mass problems.]
Brown, E. W., "Gravitational Motion in a Spiral Nebula," Obs,
51, 277-286 (1928) -
[No abstract or article.]
Curtis, Heber D., "The Unity of the Universe," JRASC, 22,
399 (1928) -
Hubble, E. P., "A Spiral Nebula as a Stellar System, Messier 31,"
ApJ, 69, 103-158 (1929) -
Resolution. -- The outer regions of the spiral arms are
partially resolved into swarms of faint stars, while the
nuclear region shows no indications of resolution under
any conditions with the 100-inch reflector. Intermediate regions
show isolated patches where resolution is pronounced or suggested.
Distance of M31 derived from Cepheid criteria. -- Comparisons of
period-luminosity diagrams indicate that M31 is about 0.1 mag. or 5
percent more distant than M33, and about 8.5 times more distant than the
Small Magellanic Cloud. Using Shapley's value for the cloud, we find
the distance of M 31 to be 275,000 parsecs.
Relative dimensions of M31 and the galactic system. -- A tentative
comparison of sizes, masses, luminosities, and densities suggests that
the galactic system is much larger than M31 but that the ratio is
not greater than that between M31 and other known extra-galactic systems.
Early visual observers of the spectrum reported bright lines on a
continuous background. In 1899, however, Scheiner photographed the now
familiar solar-type absorption spectrum and announced emphatically that
the nebula must be a system of stars. Radial velocities of the order of
-300 km/sec. have since been measured by several observers. ... The linear
velocity of rotation as indicated by the measures is of the order of 0
.48x km/sec., where x is the distance from the nucleus in
seconds of arc. The measures extend to about 150" from the nucleus, and
the rotation is in the sense that the south preceding end of the nebula
is approaching us relative to the nucleus. [pp 104-105]
Hubble, Edwin P., "A Relation Between Distance and Radial Velocity among
Extra-Galactic Nebulae," PNAS, 15, 168-173 (1929) -
[PNAS PDF. Subscription needed.]
Markov, A., "On the Nature of Spiral and Gaseous Nebulae," AN,
234, 329 (1929) -
Markov, A., "Verbesserungen zu dem Artikel (On the Nature of Spiral and
Gaseous Nebulae)," AN, 235, 143 (1929) -
Perrine, C. D., "The Motions and Status of the Spiral Nebulae and Globular
Clusters," AN, 236, 329 (1929) -
Lemaître, Georges, "On the Random Motion of Material Particles in the
Expanding Universe. Explanation of a Paradox,"
BAN, 5, 273 (1930) -
Perrine, C. D., "The High Velocities of the Spiral Nebulae," AN,
240, 319 (1930) -
Van Maanen, A., "Investigations on Proper Motion - Sixteenth Paper:
The Proper Motion of Messier 51, NGC 5194," Contributions from the
Mount Wilson Solar Observatory, 408, 311-314 (1930) -