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Hart, Richard Cullen, "Adriaan van Maanen's Influence on the Island-Universe Theory," Thesis (Ph.D.)--Boston University Graduate School, (1973). Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 34-04, Section B, page: 1356. - NADS - [No abstract or article.]
Berendzen, R., Hart. R., "Adriaan van Maanen's Influence of the Island Universe Theory: Part 2," Journal for the History of Astronomy, 4, 73 (1973) NADS.
Hetherington, Norriss S., "Edwin Hubble on Adriaan van Maanen's Internal Motions in Spiral Nebulae," Isis, 65, 390-393 (1974) [Added 12 Apr 2007.]
Faber, S. M., Gallagher, J. S., "
Masses and Mass-to-Light Ratios of Galaxies," Annu. Rev. Astron.
Astrophys. 17, 135-187 (1979).
Sulentic, Jack W., Arp, Halton, and Lorre, Jean, "Some Properties of
the Knots in the M87 Jet," ApJ, 233, 44-55 (1979) -
Rohlfs, K. and Kreitschmann, "A Two Component Mass Model for M81 (NGC 3031),"
A&A, 87, 175-182 (1980) -
Berendzen, Richard; Seeley, Daniel, Man Discovers the Galaxies, Columbia University Press (1984) - Key words and phrases: Slipher, spiral nebulae, Kapteyn, van Maanen, Maanen, globular clusters, Shapley, proper motions, nebulae, Mt. Wilson, Lundmark, radial velocites, Trumpler, internal motions, Cepheids, Edwin Hubble, Albert Einstein, Harlow Shapley, Huntington Library, United States - Keywords are searchable online at Google Book Search. - [Added 12 Apr 2007.]
Smith, Robert W., "The Expanding Universe. Astronomy's 'Great Debate' 1900-1931," 4S Review, 2, 15-17 (1984) - Available online through JSTOR. [Added 12 Apr 2007.]
Van den Bergh, Sidney, "Novae, Supernovae, and the Island Universe Hypothesis," PASP, 100, 8 (1988) - NADS
Brashear, Ronald W., Hetherington, Norriss S., "The Hubble-van Maanen conflict over internal motions in spiral nebulae: yet more information on an already old topic," Vistas in Astronomy, 34, 415-423 (1991) [Added 12 Apr 2007.]
Hetherington, N., and Brashear, R., "Walter S. Adams and the Imposed Settlement Between Edwin Hubble and Adriaan van Maanen," Journal for the History of Astronomy, 23, 53-56 (1992) - [See the 1935 Hubble and van Maanen entries above.]
Kroupa, P., Röser, S., and Bastian, U., "On the motion of the Magellanic Clouds," MNRAS, 266, 412-420 (1994) - NADS - We have measured the proper motion of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds using Magellanic Cloud stars in the PPM Catalogue, and obtain mu = 1.7 +/- 0.9 mas/yr for the LMC. [Added 27 Jul 2006.]
Jones, B.F., Klemola, A.R., & Lin, D.N.C., "Proper Motion of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the mass of the galaxy. 1: Observational Results," AJ, 107, 1333-1337 (1994) - NADS - We have measured the proper motion of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using 21 plates taken with the Cerro-Tolodo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 4 m telescope and covering an epoch span of 14 yr. The mean absolute proper motion of the LMC stars in our region is mualpha = 0.120 sec +/- 0.029 sec/century, mudelta = 0.26 sec +/- 0.027 sec/century. [Added 27 Jul 2006.]
Larson, Richard B., "Formation of Small and Large Stellar Systems,"
Gingerich, Owen, "The Scale of the Universe: A Curtain Raiser in Four Acts
and Four Morals," PASP, 108, 1068-1072 (1996) -
In the annals of modern science, the publication date, or the date of
presentation to some august body, is generally used to set priorities and
time tables for significant discoveries. . . . Consequently, we
tend to date Hubble's great discovery of cepheids in M31 to 1925, to his
formal announcement, in absentia, in Washington at the joint meeting of
the AAS and the AAAS on New Year's Day of that year.
As Allan Sandage (1961, pp. 4-5) put it in the introduction to The Hubble
Atlas of Galaxies,
Sulentic, Jack, and Smith, Brett, "A Fresh Look at Discordant Redshift Galaxies in Compact Groups," Astrophys. Space Sci., 244, 23-28 (1996) - NADS
Holmberg, Gustav, Astronomy in Sweden 1860-1940. Uppsala Newsletter: History of Science, 26, (1997). Offers a commentary on Lundmark's work on spiral nebulae in Sweden. (Comments are in the fourth and third paragraphs from the end.)
Arp, Halton C., Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science, Apeiron, Montreal (1998). Available at: Amazon.com.
2002Chandar, R., Bianchi, L., Ford, H.C., Sarajedini, A., "Kinematics of Star Clusters in M33: Distinct Populations," ApJ, 564, 712-735 (2002) - AAS online publication
We present velocity measurements for 107 star clusters in the nearby, low-luminosity spiral galaxy M33...The young clusters have a maximum circular velocity of 87 ± 11 km sec-1. [Added 07 Feb 2007.] [Smith (1970) found velocities ranging from 19 to 34 km sec-1 in H II regions in M101 and M33.] .
Duerbeck, H.W., "Extragalactic Research in Europe and the United States
in the Early 20th Century," AN, 323, 534-537 (2002) -
Brunthaler, A., Reid, M.J., Falcke, H., Greenhill, L.J., Henkel, C., The Geometric Distance and Proper Motion of the Triangulum Galaxy (M33), Science, 307, 1440-1443 (2005) Sciencemag Abstract - Article [PDF]
These researchers seem to be working under the assumption that the internal motions in M33 behave more or less homogeneously (similar to that expected for a semi-rigid disk) and that rotational velocity, as a function of distance from the center of the disk, can be approximated by a smooth mathematical function. According to van Maanen, the motions could more likely be represented by spiraling river-like streams with regions of stagnation between the spiral elements. Brunthaler's team studied maser regions which do not coorespond to any regions that van Maanen evaluated astrometrically. The team did measure internal motions but these were on the order of 1000 times less than those reported by van Maanen and they were in the opposite direction.
See the author's article Messier 33 Internal Motions (under construction) which compares recent findings versus those of van Mannen. [2005 entries were added on 07 Feb 2007.]
Shin-Yi Lin, Nagayoshi Ohashi, Jeremy Lim, Paul T.P. Ho, Misato Fukagawa and Motohida Tamura, "Possible Molecular Spiral Arms in the Protoplanetary Disk of AB Aurigae," ApJ, 645, 1297-1304 (2006) - Abstract.
Circumstellar dust disk (size 144 x 100 AU) exhibits a complex spiral arms structure. Rotating gas disk (530 x 330 AU) shows maximum rotational velocity of 2.8 km/sec at 450 AU. (Rotation period would be on the order of 760 years.) [Added 26 Dec 2007.]
Evidence that Supported Doubts that Spiral Nebulae are Separate Galaxies - Center for History of Physics - AIP.
The Space Motion of Leo I: Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion and Implied Orbit arXiv.org>astro-ph> arXiv:1210.6039 [Added 08 Dec 2012]
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