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On Spiral Nebulae, van Maanen et al.

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1973

Hart, Richard Cullen, "Adriaan van Maanen's Influence on the Island-Universe Theory," Thesis (Ph.D.)--Boston University Graduate School, (1973). Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 34-04, Section B, page: 1356. - NADS - [No abstract or article.]

Berendzen, R., Hart. R., "Adriaan van Maanen's Influence of the Island Universe Theory: Part 2," Journal for the History of Astronomy, 4, 73 (1973) NADS.

1974

Hetherington, Norriss S., "Edwin Hubble on Adriaan van Maanen's Internal Motions in Spiral Nebulae," Isis, 65, 390-393 (1974) [Added 12 Apr 2007.]

1979

Faber, S. M., Gallagher, J. S., " Masses and Mass-to-Light Ratios of Galaxies," Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 17, 135-187 (1979).
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Sulentic, Jack W., Arp, Halton, and Lorre, Jean, "Some Properties of the Knots in the M87 Jet," ApJ, 233, 44-55 (1979) - NADS
    Photographs taken in 1956 by Baade show the knots in the jet of M87 to be polarized. In 1978, these plates were repeated under the conditions as identical as possible. A careful comparison indicates that the polarization and intensity of the knots have changed in the 22 year interval. . . . [p. 49]
    ii) Proper Motion in the Jet - Measurements were made of the separation of knot A from the nucleus of M87 in order to see if the knots had shown detectable radial motion over the 22 year time scale. . . .
    [The investigation seems to have evolved into seeing whether or not there was a measurable change in the angular distance between knots A and B in the jet. No quantitative result for proper motion, null or otherwise, for knot A with respect to the nucleus was published.]
    No evidence of a separation change [between knot A and B] was found. . . . [p. 49]

1980

Rohlfs, K. and Kreitschmann, "A Two Component Mass Model for M81 (NGC 3031)," A&A, 87, 175-182 (1980) - NADS
    By combining radial velocity data of optical and radio measurements with resolution ranging from a few arc seconds to 9' a well determined rotation curve of M81 has been compiled that shows rather clearly two maxima located at R=1kpc and R=6.5kpc. [The rotation curve is shown on page 176 of ref.] ...
    Unfortunately the distance to M81 is still not well determined, we will adopt here the usual value of D=3.25 Mpc (Tammann and Sandage, 1968) resulting in a scale of 0.945 kpc/arcmin. [p.175] [A comparison of the details of the two maxima above will be made with van Maanen's internal motions for M81.]

1984

Berendzen, Richard; Seeley, Daniel, Man Discovers the Galaxies, Columbia University Press (1984) - Key words and phrases: Slipher, spiral nebulae, Kapteyn, van Maanen, Maanen, globular clusters, Shapley, proper motions, nebulae, Mt. Wilson, Lundmark, radial velocites, Trumpler, internal motions, Cepheids, Edwin Hubble, Albert Einstein, Harlow Shapley, Huntington Library, United States - Keywords are searchable online at Google Book Search. - [Added 12 Apr 2007.]

Smith, Robert W., "The Expanding Universe. Astronomy's 'Great Debate' 1900-1931," 4S Review, 2, 15-17 (1984) - Available online through JSTOR. [Added 12 Apr 2007.]

1988

Van den Bergh, Sidney, "Novae, Supernovae, and the Island Universe Hypothesis," PASP, 100, 8 (1988) - NADS

1991

Brashear, Ronald W., Hetherington, Norriss S., "The Hubble-van Maanen conflict over internal motions in spiral nebulae: yet more information on an already old topic," Vistas in Astronomy, 34, 415-423 (1991) [Added 12 Apr 2007.]

1992

Hetherington, N., and Brashear, R., "Walter S. Adams and the Imposed Settlement Between Edwin Hubble and Adriaan van Maanen," Journal for the History of Astronomy, 23, 53-56 (1992) - [See the 1935 Hubble and van Maanen entries above.]

1994

Kroupa, P., Röser, S., and Bastian, U., "On the motion of the Magellanic Clouds," MNRAS, 266, 412-420 (1994) - NADS - We have measured the proper motion of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds using Magellanic Cloud stars in the PPM Catalogue, and obtain mu = 1.7 +/- 0.9 mas/yr for the LMC. [Added 27 Jul 2006.]

Jones, B.F., Klemola, A.R., & Lin, D.N.C., "Proper Motion of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the mass of the galaxy. 1: Observational Results," AJ, 107, 1333-1337 (1994) - NADS - We have measured the proper motion of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using 21 plates taken with the Cerro-Tolodo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 4 m telescope and covering an epoch span of 14 yr. The mean absolute proper motion of the LMC stars in our region is mualpha = 0.120 sec +/- 0.029 sec/century, mudelta = 0.26 sec +/- 0.027 sec/century. [Added 27 Jul 2006.]

1995

Larson, Richard B., "Formation of Small and Large Stellar Systems,"
[pdf] http://www.astro.yale.edu/larson/papers/Petrozavodsk95.pdf
    Current evidence indicates that stars form in a hierarchy of groupings of various sizes, within which binary systems stand out as distinct tightly bound units. The distribution of separations of binaries resembles the internal spatial distributions of stars in larger systems, including massive young star clusters and elliptical galaxies, and this suggests that similar mechanisms may be involved in structuring stellar systems on a wide range of scales. ...

1996

Gingerich, Owen, "The Scale of the Universe: A Curtain Raiser in Four Acts and Four Morals," PASP, 108, 1068-1072 (1996) - NADS
    We normally think of Shapley's pioneering work at Mt. Wilson Observatory as delineating the scale of the Milky Way without any quantitative concern for the spiral nebula. It may therefore be a surprise to learn that in 1917 he proposed in the PASP, on the basis of observed novae, that M31, the Andromeda nebula, was at least a million light years away (Shapley 1917). What happened? Why did he retreat so quickly from his published opinion? [Details are summarized.] [p. 1070]
    Is there a moral here? Shapley did not have a clue then about supernovae, interstellar absorption, or the distinction between Population I and Population II cepheids, . . .  The moral, with its warning to today's debaters, I draw from Shakespeare:

There are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamt of in your philosophy.

    In the annals of modern science, the publication date, or the date of presentation to some august body, is generally used to set priorities and time tables for significant discoveries.   . . . Consequently, we tend to date Hubble's great discovery of cepheids in M31 to 1925, to his formal announcement, in absentia, in Washington at the joint meeting of the AAS and the AAAS on New Year's Day of that year. As Allan Sandage (1961, pp. 4-5) put it in the introduction to The Hubble Atlas of Galaxies,
    "The announcement of Hubble's discovery was dramatic... When Hubble's paper had been read, the entire Society knew that the [great] debate had come to an end, that the island-universe concept of the distribution of matter in space had been proved, and that an era of enlightenment in cosmology had begun." . . .
    But as Richard Berendzen and Michael Hoskins (1971) have written, any account of an instantaneous, overnight resolution of a controversy arouses the suspicion of the historian. . . . [A summary of Hubble's earlier disclosures to his colleagues, and their reactions to the news is given.]
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Sulentic, Jack, and Smith, Brett, "A Fresh Look at Discordant Redshift Galaxies in Compact Groups," Astrophys. Space Sci., 244, 23-28 (1996) - NADS

1997

Holmberg, Gustav, Astronomy in Sweden 1860-1940. Uppsala Newsletter: History of Science, 26, (1997).     Offers a commentary on Lundmark's work on spiral nebulae in Sweden. (Comments are in the fourth and third paragraphs from the end.)

1998

Arp, Halton C., Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science, Apeiron, Montreal (1998). Available at: Amazon.com.

2002

Chandar, R., Bianchi, L., Ford, H.C., Sarajedini, A., "Kinematics of Star Clusters in M33: Distinct Populations," ApJ, 564, 712-735 (2002) - AAS online publication
    We present velocity measurements for 107 star clusters in the nearby, low-luminosity spiral galaxy M33...The young clusters have a maximum circular velocity of 87 ± 11 km sec-1. [Added 07 Feb 2007.] [Smith (1970) found velocities ranging from 19 to 34 km sec-1 in H II regions in M101 and M33.] .

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Duerbeck, H.W., "Extragalactic Research in Europe and the United States in the Early 20th Century," AN, 323, 534-537 (2002) - NADS
    While the theoretical foundations of modern relativistic cosmology were laid, to a large extent, by European researchers like Einstein, de Sitter, Friedmann, Lemaître, and others, observational cosmology was (and to a large extent, still is) dominated by US astronomers, working at Lick and Mt. Wilson observatories. From today's viewpoint, Hubble appears to dwarf all his - national and international - peers. However, Keeler and Curtis, Fath and Slipher carried out pioneering work in the US, as did Wolf, Wirtz, Lundmark, de Sitter in Europe, . . .   European extragalactic research during the early 20th century is outlined and compared with studies in the United States. Reasons for the small impact of European research are a mixture of deliberate and accidental neglect and suppression, as well as the lack of technical and organizational infrastructure, which was especially noticeable after World War I. [Abstract © 2002: Astronomische Nachrichten]

2005

Brunthaler, A., Reid, M.J., Falcke, H., Greenhill, L.J., Henkel, C., The Geometric Distance and Proper Motion of the Triangulum Galaxy (M33), Science, 307, 1440-1443 (2005) Sciencemag Abstract - Article [PDF]

These researchers seem to be working under the assumption that the internal motions in M33 behave more or less homogeneously (similar to that expected for a semi-rigid disk) and that rotational velocity, as a function of distance from the center of the disk, can be approximated by a smooth mathematical function. According to van Maanen, the motions could more likely be represented by spiraling river-like streams with regions of stagnation between the spiral elements. Brunthaler's team studied maser regions which do not coorespond to any regions that van Maanen evaluated astrometrically. The team did measure internal motions but these were on the order of 1000 times less than those reported by van Maanen and they were in the opposite direction.

See the author's article Messier 33 Internal Motions (under construction) which compares recent findings versus those of van Mannen. [2005 entries were added on 07 Feb 2007.]

2006

Shin-Yi Lin, Nagayoshi Ohashi, Jeremy Lim, Paul T.P. Ho, Misato Fukagawa and Motohida Tamura, "Possible Molecular Spiral Arms in the Protoplanetary Disk of AB Aurigae," ApJ, 645, 1297-1304 (2006) - Abstract.

Circumstellar dust disk (size 144 x 100 AU) exhibits a complex spiral arms structure. Rotating gas disk (530 x 330 AU) shows maximum rotational velocity of 2.8 km/sec at 450 AU. (Rotation period would be on the order of 760 years.) [Added 26 Dec 2007.]

2012

Evidence that Supported Doubts that Spiral Nebulae are Separate Galaxies - Center for History of Physics - AIP.

The Space Motion of Leo I: Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion and Implied Orbit arXiv.org>astro-ph> arXiv:1210.6039 [Added 08 Dec 2012]

This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System (NADS) Bibliographic Services.

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