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This article is in four sections.
Emisson-Absorption-Scattering (EAS) Sub-Quantum Physics - In three parts.
EAS Nuclear Glue
EAS Neutron Beta Decay
EAS Mass Excess and Mass Defect

Emission-Absorption-Scattering (EAS)
Sub-Quantum Physics

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3

Now, to let the EAS model "explain" the braking action of bremsstrahlung.

Suppose, for simplicity, we have a proton whose job it is to slow down rapidly passing electrons. We should keep in the back of our minds that there are all kinds of EAS particles involved but let's concentrate only on the particular set of incoming negative chargelets (those converging on the proton) which hit the electrons and impel them toward the proton. And we will deal with electrons whose approach speed is near the speed of light.

As the electron is inbound, the charglet collisions ... are from the rear. In this model, the impulses they deliver to the electron are proportional to their closure rates relative to the electron. If the charglets are going the speed of light, and the electron is going 99.9 percent the speed of light, in the same direction, the "tail-ender" collisions will have a closure rate of 0.1 percent the speed of light, and their effect will be minimal. The electron cannot acquire any appreciable speed increase. [This is related to Ritz's hypothesis that instead of mass approaching infinity as objects approach the speed of light (with respect to a given accelerator apparatus), electrodynamic accelerating influences/actions approach zero. See Ritz, (1908) page 194.[1][Wrong reference. Correction to follow.]

electron-proton collision

As the electron passes by the proton, the inbound charglets hit it from the side at full force and can cause its path to change direction, but with little change in speed.

Here comes the fun part!

As the electron heads outbound it will be running head-on into the inbound charglets. The collisions will have a closure rate of almost two times the speed of light and this will produce a dramatic braking action. ... The computer program ELECTRON [4] demonstrates the breaking action.

Since all these collisions are on a so-called chaotic basis, it is conceivable that every now and then an electron could shoot past the proton and suffer very few charglet collisions and hence curve very little and brake minimally.

If an extra bunch of chargelets happen to hit the electron from the side, while it is passing the proton, and relatively few [inbound] chargelets hit it while outbound, we could get bending of the path with minimal braking.

This presentation is based on a talk given at the International Conference on Isaac Newton, in St. Petersburg, Russia, hosted by the Russian Academy of Sciences, 22-27 March 1993. A modified version was presented at the Southwest and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting at Texas A&M University, May 18-22 1997.

Although not mentioned earlier, the EAS model is a Theory Of Everything. The author just doesn't have electrons and protons figured out yet. [Added 28 May 2005.]

See The EAS Nuclear Glue , EAS Neutron Beta Decay, and EAS Mass Excess for added discussions based on ideas presented in this article.

Notes on the use of the words positrino and negatrino
Added 10 Feb 2004. Modified 11 Feb 2004 and on 15 Nov 2009.

The author's first open-forum use of the words positrino and negatrino (which were replaced by the expressions postive and negative chargelets on 14 Nov 2009, was in this paper, in March 1993. (They were used in the ELECTRON.BAS computer program[4], which was copyrighted in September of 1992.) Earlier ... names for the particles were plus and minus zingies. ... In the early 1970's zingies replaced an earlier pair of names that are too embarassing to mention. ...

Having said the above, it turns out the words positrino and negatrino were coined, quantitatively defined, and used extensively by Professor Rati Ram Sharma, in his 1990 book Unified Physical Theory.[5] Professor Sharma has priority on the use of these words.


[1] Ritz, W., Recherches Critiques sur l'Electrodynamique Generale, Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 13, (1908) 145-275.
    An English translation is online. Please see: Critical Researches on General Electrodynamics.
    [Added 23 January 2004.]

[2] Fox, J.G., Evidence Against Emission Theories, Am. J. of Phys, 33, 1, (1965) NADS (Abstract only).

[2a] Tolman, R., The Second Postulate of Relativity, Phys. Rev., 31 26 (1910) NADS;
    Some Emission Theories of Light, ibid., 35, 136 (1912) NADS.

[3] Ritz, W., Die Gravitation, Scientia, 5, 241-255, (1909); La Gravitation, Scienta, 5 152-165, (1909); see Oeurves Walther Ritz, 462-477, 478-492, Gauthier Villars, Paris (1911).

[4] A QuickBASIC computer program, ELECTRON.BAS, which models the stochastic braking action of bremsstrahlung, is available on this site at Low-Tec Shareware.

[5] Sharma, R.R., Unified Physical Theory, A Falcon Book from Cosmo Publications, 1990, New Delhi, India.

Notes on reference [2a].

Egg on face! [24 October 2004] Tolman did not discuss enroute changes in the speed of light brought about by absorption and re-emission by charges in a transparent medium, as attributed by John Fox. See Am. J. Phys., 33, 1, 1965 (p.4). On this, Fox refers readers to W. Pauli, Theory of Relativity Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, (1958), pp. 5-9. Pauli refers readers to R. C. Tolman, Phys. Rev., 30, 291 (1910) and 31, 26 (1910).

Both Tolman and de Sitter, who were fervently trying to bury Ritz's ballistic emission theory, espoused the belief that the speed of light was not much affected by its passage through the Earth's atmosphere. Which in itself is very Ritz-like. Tolman did deal with an absorption-emission change in light velocity, but he was primarily concerned with the abrupt reversal in light direction upon its reflection (a change in velocity) by the atoms (charges?) in a mirror's silvered surface.

Recommended Reading:

Extinction Shift Principle - Emission and Re-emission done correctly. - E.H. Dowdye, Jr. - [Added 09 August 2003.]

* * *

Development of Gauss-Weber Electrodynamics..Without Waves V.M. Bernstein.

Pushing Gravity - New perspectives on Le Sage's theory of gravitation, Matthew R. Edwards (ed.).

    (The EAS model includes a Le Sage type of gravity as a side effect of electricity.
    According to Robert Forward (circa 1972), push gravity theories get invented,
    more or less independently, about every twenty years. Forward is also the person
    who put the author on the trail of Walter Ritz. [Added 26 March 2004.]

This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System (NADS) Bibliographic Services.

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3

Send comments/questions to Robert Fritzius at fritzius@bellsouth.net