Now, to let the EAS model "explain" the braking action of bremsstrahlung.
Suppose, for simplicity, we have a proton whose job it is to slow down
rapidly passing electrons. We should keep in the back of our minds that
there are all kinds of EAS particles involved but let's concentrate only
on the particular set of incoming negative chargelets (those
converging on the proton) which hit the electrons and impel them toward
the proton. And we will deal with electrons whose approach speed is near
the speed of light.
As the electron is inbound, the charglet collisions
... are from the rear. In
this model, the impulses they deliver to the electron are proportional to
their closure rates relative to the electron. If the charglets are
going the speed of light, and the electron is going 99.9 percent the speed
of light, in the same direction, the "tail-ender" collisions will have a
closure rate of 0.1 percent the speed of light, and their effect will be
minimal. The electron cannot acquire any appreciable speed increase.
[This is related to Ritz's hypothesis that instead of mass approaching
infinity as objects approach the speed of light (with respect to a given
accelerator apparatus), electrodynamic accelerating
influences/actions approach zero. See Ritz, (1908) page 194.[Wrong reference. Correction to follow.]
As the electron passes by the proton, the inbound charglets
hit it from the side at full force and can cause its path to change
direction, but with little change in speed.
Here comes the fun part!
As the electron heads outbound it will be running head-on into the
inbound charglets. The collisions will have a closure rate of almost
two times the speed of light and this will produce a dramatic braking
action. ... The computer program ELECTRON  demonstrates the
Since all these collisions are on a so-called chaotic basis, it is
conceivable that every now and then an electron could shoot past the proton
and suffer very few charglet collisions and hence curve very little
and brake minimally.
If an extra bunch of chargelets happen to hit the electron from
the side, while it is passing the proton, and relatively few [inbound]
chargelets hit it while outbound, we could get bending of the path
with minimal braking.
This presentation is based on a talk given at the International Conference
on Isaac Newton, in St. Petersburg, Russia, hosted by the Russian Academy
of Sciences, 22-27 March 1993. A modified version was presented at the
Southwest and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for
the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting at Texas A&M University,
May 18-22 1997.
Although not mentioned earlier, the EAS model is a Theory Of
Everything. The author just doesn't have electrons and protons figured
out yet. [Added 28 May 2005.]
Notes on the use of the words positrino and negatrino
Added 10 Feb 2004. Modified 11 Feb 2004 and on 15 Nov 2009.
The author's first open-forum use of the words positrino and
negatrino (which were replaced by the expressions postive and
negative chargelets on 14 Nov 2009, was in this paper, in March 1993. (They were used in the
ELECTRON.BAS computer program, which was copyrighted in September of 1992.)
Earlier ... names for the particles were plus and minus zingies.
... In the early 1970's zingies replaced an earlier pair of names
that are too embarassing to mention. ...
Having said the above, it turns out the words positrino and
negatrino were coined, quantitatively defined, and used
Professor Rati Ram Sharma, in his 1990 book Unified Physical
Theory. Professor Sharma has priority on the use of these words.
 Ritz, W., Recherches Critiques sur l'Electrodynamique Generale,
Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 13, (1908) 145-275.
An English translation is online. Please see:
Critical Researches on General Electrodynamics.
[Added 23 January 2004.]
 Fox, J.G., Evidence Against Emission Theories, Am. J. of Phys,
33, 1, (1965)
[2a] Tolman, R., The Second Postulate of Relativity, Phys. Rev., 31 26 (1910)
Some Emission Theories of Light, ibid., 35, 136 (1912)
 Ritz, W., Die Gravitation, Scientia, 5, 241-255,
(1909); La Gravitation, Scienta, 5 152-165, (1909); see
Oeurves Walther Ritz, 462-477, 478-492, Gauthier Villars, Paris
 A QuickBASIC computer program, ELECTRON.BAS, which models the
stochastic braking action of bremsstrahlung, is available on this site at
 Sharma, R.R., Unified Physical Theory, A Falcon Book from
Cosmo Publications, 1990, New Delhi, India.
Notes on reference [2a].
Egg on face! [24 October 2004] Tolman did not discuss enroute
changes in the speed of light brought about by absorption and re-emission
by charges in a transparent medium, as attributed by John Fox. See
Am. J. Phys.,33, 1, 1965 (p.4). On this, Fox refers readers
to W. Pauli, Theory of Relativity Pergamon Press, Inc., New York,
(1958), pp. 5-9. Pauli refers readers to R. C. Tolman, Phys. Rev.,
30, 291 (1910) and 31, 26 (1910).
Both Tolman and de Sitter, who were fervently trying to bury Ritz's
ballistic emission theory, espoused the belief
that the speed of light was not much affected by its passage through the
Earth's atmosphere. Which in itself is very Ritz-like. Tolman did
deal with an absorption-emission change in light velocity, but he
was primarily concerned with the abrupt reversal
in light direction upon its reflection (a change in velocity) by the
atoms (charges?) in a mirror's silvered surface.
Pushing Gravity - New perspectives on Le Sage's theory of gravitation,
Matthew R. Edwards (ed.).
(The EAS model includes a Le Sage type of gravity as a side effect of
According to Robert Forward (circa 1972), push gravity theories get
more or less independently, about every twenty years. Forward is also the
who put the author on the trail of Walter Ritz. [Added 26 March 2004.]