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Cosmology's Missing Mass Problems - Part 5
But What About Hubble's Redshifts?
When Hubble and Humason first announced their systematic redshift-distance
findings for spiral nebulae, Humason cautioned their colleagues that what
they were calling apparent radial velocities might not really be
velocities. He explained that because they didn't have a new word or phrase
to apply to the newly discovered phenomena, they took the
already-in-use phrase apparent radial velocity and used it in
conjunction with their redshift measurements. [This may not be said right.]
[Humason's actual words on the subject:]
"It is not at all certain that the large red-shifts observed in the spectra
are to be interpreted as a Doppler effect, but for convenience they are
expressed in terms of velocity and referred to as apparent velocities."
(HM31) Page 35.
[Added 25 Oct 2003.]
When Hubble's redshift-distance relation is applied to the Virgo "Cluster"
of galaxies, the cluster appears to be elongated along a line that
passes through our Solar neighborhood. Goodman says this causes the
"Copernican Problem." (GJ), i.e., it puts us into a preferential reference frame.
(GJ Link no longer works.)
"Instead of immediately recognizing this as a problem, the mainstream adopted
these configurations, calling them the "fingers of God."
(GJ) This effect is sometimes called a redshift-space distortion.
The Copernican Problem
Louis Desroches says it this way.
"Two important effects occur in redshift space. Although redshift
corresponds to true distance according to the Hubble Law, small peculiar
velocities not associated with the Hubble flow can cause distortions in
redshift space. The most evident of these is the Fingers-of-God effect,
where long thin filaments in redshift space point directly back at [an]
observer. We should know by now that we are not privileged observers,
this effect must be unphysical."
According to P.J.E. Peebles, Zwicky and Smith found the velocities of
individual galaxies in the Coma and Virgo Clusters were about a factor
of ten to 100 larger than they expected. (DJ) -
(Link to www.astro.queensu.ca no longer works.)
This "Fingers-of-God" effect can be seen in Figure 3, which shows the
elongated shape of the Virgo Cluster. (The Coma Cluster might be in there
The idea behind cosmological redshift is that spectral elements from
remote locations (in other galaxies/spiral nebulae, for example) were
generated at essentially the same wavelengths as for local sources, but
were somehow shifted. (Originally it was supposed to be a Doppler
shift; nowadays it's politically correct to say that it's caused by an
expansion of space.)
Virgo Cluster in Redshift Space
In 1938 Hubble
wrestled with two viewpoints on the origin of cosmological redshifts. The
first was that the universe (the small part of it that we could see) was
stationary and homogenous and the redshift-distance relation was linear,
however we did not know the non-Doppler cause of the observed redshifts.
The second viewpoint was that the universe was expanding (the spiral nebulae
were receding from us) but that the distribution of matter was no longer
uniform (the density increases outward), and the law of red shifts is no
longer linear (redshifts increase with distance at an accelerated rate).
A Variable Charge Explanation for Cosmological Redshift
Regardless of the manner of how light gets cosmologically redshifted, the
redshift, as currently understood, is tied to the unverifiable
assumption that the unit electrical charge (the charge associated with
electrons and protons) is a space-and-time constant, even in the remotest
parts of space and at the longest times ago.
In 1988 the author published a (non-mathematical) hypothesis
(FR88) that electrical
charge is not constant, rather that it is a matter-density-dependent
In quantum mechanics, the wavelengths of emission or absorption lines in
spectral series are proportional to the inverse fourth power of the
unit electrical charge If electrical charge in a given region of space
is different than locally then we should expect to see all of the spectral
elements from that region to be shifted in a systematic manner. (The
fine-structure constant, which is proportional to the fourth power of the
unit electrical charge, may also come into play here. This is because
the internal spacing of individual lines within spectral multiplets is
proportional to the fine structure constant.) An observed set of
redshifted lines thus becomes an indirect measure of the ambient
... matter density in the source's region of space. [The word local
was replaced by ambient on 14 Apr 2007.]
(See the redshift derivation in Figure 4.)
[Figure was revised on 13 Apr 2007.]
Variable Charge Redshift Z as a Function of
e(remote) and e(local)
A "GIGO" function for the absorption-driven emission of force carrying
particles, positive and negative charglets, in the author's ...
Emission-Absorption-Scattering sub-quantum physics model
provides a theoretical framework, which allows (demands) charge to be a
material density dependent variable.
"Ambient matter density" as used above, is related to the total
mass in a volume of space on the order of one cubic light year or less.
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