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Cosmology's Missing Mass Problems

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Robert S. Fritzius
Shade Tree Physics

Installed as a web page on 27 Jun 2003. Latest update 02 Dec 2015 [in Part 7].
Text additions or changes are in bold.

This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System (NADS) Bibliographic Services.

The first Missing Mass Problem

In 1933 Fritz Zwicky was the first to find a need to invoke the idea of missing mass or dark matter. He looked at eight Coma galaxies. By assuming visual equilibrium,* he calculated the mass-to-light ratio and determined that about 90% of the mass necessary to account for the observed ratio was missing and therefore invisible. or "dark." Here, the apparent rapid velocities of the galaxies, with respect to their common center of mass, suggested that much more mass (than could be seen) was required to keep the galaxies from flying out of the cluster. (BVSD) [Link no longer works.]

*Visual equilibrium means that the amount of light (of stars) is proportional to amount of mass (number of stars).

In 1936 Sinclair Smith found similar evidence for the existence of invisible mass in the Virgo cluster. [An outline of the Virgo cluster can be seen in the lower left polar plot of the Star Map in Galactic Perspective]

In 1940 Oort estimated (based on the Mass-to-light ratio of spiral nebulae) that 90% of the mass in the local group of spiral nebulae is "missing." Oort didn't cite Zwicky's 1933 paper (BSVD).

The Second Missing Mass Problem

In 1970 Vera Rubin & Kent Ford, and in 1975; Roberts & White determined that the radial velocity curve plot (radius vs. velocity) for the Milky Way Galaxy flattens out rather than trailing down. The implication was that mass continues to increase with radius. Many other "galaxies" show the same effect. (BSVD)

It was commonly assumed that stars in galaxies would follow Kepler's laws like planets in the solar system. One of the earliest papers on this idea was published in 1927 by Bertil Lindblad, the newly appointed director of the Stockholm Observatory. (LB27) - NADS. [Added 15 Oct 2003.] Since the stars in the Milky Way galaxy and in spiral nebulae didn't follow Kepler's laws, then it was assumed that there was a whole lot of distributed invisible mass affecting them. (DJ)

Below is a diagram that demonstrates how Keplerian motions compare to the dynamics of stars in sparsely populated disk strutures that have no invisible masses. A computer program was used to model free-running Newtonian interactions between stars themselves and a Central Object (CO). Star masses, radii, and speeds are on arbitrary scales. All stars were assigned masses of 1.0, and in each run the mass of the Central Object was set to equal 32 stellar masses minus the summed mass of the stars in orbit. (The first run, with 4 stars and CO mass=28, (red curve) approximates Keplerian conditions. In the final run, with 32 stars, the mass of the CO was zero, and the blue curve resembles the radial velocity curves for big stellar disk systems. [Added 04 Jun 2010]

sparsely populated stellar disks
Stellar Linear Speeds versus System Configuration and Central Object Mass

In any given simulation run the initial speeds of the stars in each ring were set manually, so as to cause them to travel (for a while, at least) with nearly constant radii. Usually, after one or two orbits of the innermost star(s), the orbits begin gradually spiralling into one another and the traffic pattern becomes more and more like a square dance. Finally, they transition into a state of bedlam. I think this tendency toward disorder arises from not including magnetism in the modelling, i.e., gravitational interactions, by themselves, are incapable of leading to long term group stability. [Last sentence was added on 25 Aug 2012.]

The ring radii for these runs are 2.0, 3.18, 5.06 and 8.03 (The ratio between adjacent ring sizes is 1.59:1.) [Added 31 May 2010. The graph and descriptive material were moved here from Part 2 on 04 Jun 2010.]

Where the author is going in this article

A brief outline of most of the missing mass explanations, with links to internet sources of more in-depth information is provided. But then, the article will move on to what the author considers to be the real problems (and what to do about them).

First Proposed Solutions to Missing Mass Problem

(Including some "known" or suspected problems in selected cases)

The basic outline for this section is derived from the articles Dark Matter versus MOND (DMVM), and What is the Missing Mass problem? Science Net - Physics (SNP.)* Other sources are identified as appropriate. This list is under construction.
* (SNP) was at http://www.sciencenet.org.uk/database/Physics/Cosmology/p00717c.html

CDM (Cold Dark Matter)
    WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) (SNP) These move slowly.
        Axions, 6-15 Mev?, Seishi Matsuki ca 1983 - None visualized yet. - (SMKU)
        Massless neutrinos (CXO)
        Photinos (CXO)
        Neutralinos (DJ) [Link to www.astro.queensu.ca no longer works.]
        No WIMPS detected yet. (CXO)
    Hydrogen Gas - Difficult for it to hide. (CXO)

WDM (Warm Dark Matter) - Baryonic
    Warm Intergalactic Fog - (NF03) - The Jury is out. - [Added 16 August 2003.]

HDM (Hot Dark Matter) -Non-Baryonic (SNP)
    (Hot, means traveling at or near the speed of light.)
    Neutrinos - If their mass was = 92 eV it would make Omega = 1.0 (DJ)
        Apparently Neutrinos have mass but not enough to fit the bill. (SNP)
    The author's Sub-quantum Positive and negative chargelets (FR93) would fit
        into the HDM category, but he is of the opinion that trying to capture them
        is equivalent to trying to capture virtual photons. He does, however, apply
        them to the missing mass problem. See A Variable Charge Explanation for
        Cosmological Redshift
in Part 6 of this article. [Added 21 Jan 2004.]
BDM (Baryonic Dark Matter)
    MACHOs (Massive Astronomical Compact Halo Objects) (SMKU)
        Dead stars/white dwarfs, in galactic halo (BBCN) (SMKU)
          but
        Not enough helium, which should accompany white dwarfs. (CXO)
        Brown Dwarves (Dwarfs) / Jupiters - Not enough of them. (CXO)
        Red Dwarfs - Not enough of them. (SEV94) - [Added 3 Aug 2003.]
        Neutron Stars - Scarcer than white dwarfs -
            No evidence of released energy and heavy elements. (CXO)
        Unborn stars (SMKU)
    Black Holes (SMKU) (CXO)
        Predicted by Einstein's GTR
    Interloper galaxies may account for all the missing mass. (DJ)

Both CDM and HDM have their problems; HDM can't form small structures like galaxies, and CDM has problems forming large scale structure (DJ)

See The Dark Matter Flow Chart - A New and Definitive Meta-Cosmology Theory. - A tongue-in-cheek version of the conceptualization process for new dark matter particles. [Added 24 December 2004.]

Other ways of looking at the problem

Changes to Gravity
    Quantum Gravity
        A distortion in the quantum vacuum energy leads to an additional "Bubble Force"
        which may explain the constant galactic-rotation curves. (NRV)
            But.... the Hubble Space Telescope is taking pictures that are too clear.
            They show no evidence of the hazy effects that quantum foam should produce.
            Looks like trouble for quantum foam and hence quantum gravity. ( BR03)
    Peebles ICDM (Isocurvature Cold Dark Matter) model (PICDM-1, PICDM-2)
      "[T]he BOOMERANG measurement of the height and the position of the
        first "acoustic peak" in the CMB fluctuations has ruled out the IDCM
        model as it was originally proposed." - (MW02)
    Conformal Weyl gravity (No details)
    Non-symmetric gravity (No details)
    MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics)
        One proponent of MOND says that all of the dark matter theories fail. (MS1)
        See the MOND section below.
    Inertial Induction (Noriaki Namba) (NN02)
        Stars are hypothesized to exert inertial induction on each other which tends to
        produce coherent group accelerations. This coherence tendency leads to constant
        rotation speeds in the outer regions of rotating stellar systems, the Milky Way
        galaxy for example. [Added 20 April 2004.]

Electrodynamic Considerations
    Plasma cosmology (Hannes Alfvén) (No Ref.)
    Electric Stars (Ralph Juergens) (No Ref.)
        These models complement one another. Large-scale electrodynamic processes
        moderate the interactions between stars and lead to "group transport" behavior
        along the lines of fluid dynamics).

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Robert Fritzius fritzius@bellsouth.net

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