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Cosmology's Missing Mass Problems
Robert S. Fritzius
Installed as a web page on 27 June 2003. Latest update 30 Nov 2012.
Shade Tree Physics
Text additions or changes are in bold.
This research has made use of
NASA's Astrophysics Data System
(NADS) Bibliographic Services.
The first Missing Mass Problem
In 1933 Fritz Zwicky was the first to find a need to invoke the idea of
missing mass or dark matter. He looked at eight Coma galaxies. By
assuming visual equilibrium,* he calculated the mass-to-light ratio and
determined that about 90% of the mass necessary to account for the
observed ratio was missing and therefore invisible. or "dark."
Here, the apparent rapid velocities of the galaxies, with respect to their
common center of mass, suggested that much more mass (than could be seen)
was required to keep the galaxies from flying out of the cluster.
(BVSD) [Link no longer works.]
*Visual equilibrium means that the amount of light (of stars) is
proportional to amount of mass (number of stars).
In 1936 Sinclair Smith found similar evidence for the existence of
invisible mass in the Virgo cluster. [An outline of the Virgo
cluster can be seen in the lower left polar plot of the
Star Map in Galactic Perspective]
In 1940 Oort estimated (based on the Mass-to-light ratio of spiral nebulae)
that 90% of the mass in the local group of spiral nebulae is "missing."
Oort didn't cite Zwicky's 1933 paper
The Second Missing Mass Problem
In 1970 Vera Rubin & Kent Ford, and in 1975; Roberts & White determined that
the radial velocity curve plot (radius vs. velocity) for the Milky Way Galaxy
flattens out rather than trailing down. The implication was that mass
continues to increase with radius. Many other "galaxies" show the same
It was commonly assumed that stars in galaxies would follow Kepler's
laws like planets in the solar system. One of the earliest papers on this
idea was published in 1927 by Bertil Lindblad, the newly appointed director
of the Stockholm Observatory.
(LB27) - NADS.
[Added 15 Oct 2003.] Since the stars in the Milky Way galaxy and in spiral
nebulae didn't follow Kepler's laws, then it was assumed that there was a
whole lot of distributed invisible mass affecting them. (DJ)
(Link was: http://www.astro.queensu.ca/~dursi/dm-tutorial/dm0.html)
[Does not work, 18 Aug 2010.]
Below is a diagram that demonstrates how Keplerian motions compare to the
dynamics of stars in sparsely populated disk strutures that have no invisible
masses. A computer program was used to model free-running Newtonian interactions
between stars themselves and a
Central Object (CO). Star masses, radii, and speeds are on arbitrary scales.
All stars were assigned masses of 1.0, and in each run the mass of the Central Object
was set to equal 32 stellar masses minus the summed mass of the stars in orbit.
(The first run, with 4 stars and CO mass=28, (red curve) approximates
Keplerian conditions. In the final run, with 32 stars, the mass of the CO
was zero, and the blue curve resembles the radial velocity curves for big stellar
disk systems. [Added 04 Jun 2010]
Stellar Linear Speeds versus System Configuration and Central Object Mass
In any given simulation run the initial speeds of the stars in each ring
were set manually, so as to cause them to travel (for a while, at least)
with nearly constant radii. Usually, after one or two orbits of the innermost star(s),
the orbits begin gradually spiralling into one another and the traffic pattern
becomes more and more like a square dance. Finally, they transition into a state of
bedlam. I think this tendency toward disorder arises from not including magnetism in
the modelling, i.e., gravitational interactions, by themselves, are incapable of
leading to long term group stability. [Last sentence was added on 25 Aug 2012.]
The ring radii for these runs are 2.0, 3.18, 5.06 and 8.03 (The ratio between
adjacent ring sizes is 1.59:1.) [Added 31 May 2010. The graph and descriptive material
were moved here from Part 2 on 04 Jun 2010.]
Where the author is going in this article
A brief outline of most of the missing mass explanations, with links to
internet sources of more in-depth information is provided. But then, the article
will move on to what the author considers to be the real problems
(and what to do about them).
First Proposed Solutions to Missing Mass Problem
(Including some "known" or suspected problems in selected cases)
The basic outline for this section is derived from the articles Dark
Matter versus MOND
What is the Missing Mass problem? Science Net - Physics (SNP.)*
Other sources are identified as appropriate. This list is under construction.
* (SNP) was at http://www.sciencenet.org.uk/database/Physics/Cosmology/p00717c.html
CDM (Cold Dark Matter)
WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) (SNP)
These move slowly.
Axions, 6-15 Mev?, Seishi Matsuki ca 1983 - None visualized yet. -
No WIMPS detected yet.
Hydrogen Gas - Difficult for it to hide.
WDM (Warm Dark Matter) - Baryonic
Warm Intergalactic Fog -
(NF03) - The Jury is out. -
[Added 16 August 2003.]
HDM (Hot Dark Matter) -Non-Baryonic (SNP)
(Hot, means traveling at or near the speed of light.)
Neutrinos - If their mass was = 92 eV it would make Omega = 1.0
Apparently Neutrinos have mass but not enough to fit the bill. (SNP)
The author's Sub-quantum Positive and negative chargelets
(FR93) would fit
into the HDM category, but he is of the opinion that trying to capture
is equivalent to trying to capture virtual photons. He does, however,
them to the missing mass problem. See A Variable Charge Explanation for
Cosmological Redshift in Part 6 of this article. [Added 21 Jan 2004.]
BDM (Baryonic Dark Matter)
MACHOs (Massive Astronomical Compact Halo Objects)
Dead stars/white dwarfs, in galactic halo
Not enough helium, which should accompany white dwarfs.
Brown Dwarves (Dwarfs) / Jupiters - Not enough of them.
Red Dwarfs - Not enough of them.
[Added 3 Aug 2003.]
Neutron Stars - Scarcer than white dwarfs -
No evidence of released energy and heavy elements.
Predicted by Einstein's GTR
Interloper galaxies may account for all the missing mass.
Both CDM and HDM have their problems; HDM can't form small structures like
galaxies, and CDM has problems forming large scale structure
See The Dark
Matter Flow Chart - A New and Definitive Meta-Cosmology Theory. - A
tongue-in-cheek version of the conceptualization process for new dark matter
[Added 24 December 2004.]
Other ways of looking at the problem
Changes to Gravity
A distortion in the quantum vacuum energy leads to an additional
which may explain the constant galactic-rotation curves.
But.... the Hubble Space Telescope is taking pictures that are too clear.
They show no evidence of the hazy effects that quantum foam should produce.
Looks like trouble for quantum foam and hence quantum gravity.
Peebles ICDM (Isocurvature Cold Dark Matter) model
"[T]he BOOMERANG measurement of the height and the position of the
first "acoustic peak" in the CMB fluctuations has ruled out the IDCM
model as it was originally proposed." -
Conformal Weyl gravity (No details)
Non-symmetric gravity (No details)
MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics)
One proponent of MOND says that all of the dark matter theories fail.
See the MOND section below.
Inertial Induction (Noriaki Namba) (NN02)
Stars are hypothesized to exert inertial induction on each other which
produce coherent group accelerations. This coherence tendency leads to
rotation speeds in the outer regions of rotating stellar systems, the
galaxy for example. [Added 20 April 2004.]
Plasma cosmology (Hannes Alfvén) (No Ref.)
Electric Stars (Ralph Juergens) (No Ref.)
These models complement one another.
Large-scale electrodynamic processes
moderate the interactions between stars
and lead to "group transport" behavior
along the lines of fluid dynamics).