Installed 23 March 2002 - Latest Update 30 Dec 2016.
The globe above shows (in red) states and countries where the new influenza strain
A(H1N2) has been identified (isolated) during the 2001-2002 influenza season. (Where
known, the numbers of cases are shown in superscript.) As of 30 August 2002, the
season total for A(H1N2) in Canada was 72. See the update near the end of the article.
(More graphical info is located in Parts three and four of this article.)
Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) may be effective in combatting influenza.
News and Information on Influenza A(H1N2) and Possibly Related Illnesses
"Possibly Related" refers to unusual (media interest) illness outbreaks.
(Really new illnesses may not conform to our expectations or prescribed
References found with the on-line resource LEXIS-NEXIS® Academic
Universe are indicated by the abbreviation (LNAU).
20 November 2001 - Philippines - Manila.
Philippine Health secretary says that the flu which hit Metro Manila schools (in the first week of
October 2001) was influenza type B, not A, as earlier reported. Throat swabs showed
that the virus was not Influenza AH1N1. Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer -
Financial Times Information - (LNAU). (This virus identity crisis may merit
special scrutiny. See the 18 January 2002 and 6 February entries for England.)
11 December 2001 - China - Beijing.
Two new influenza viruses emerge in Beijing. Experts do not expect a large scale
outbreak. The story also reports long lines of influenza patients in the People's Hospital.
Source: Xinhua News Agency - (LNAU).
9 January 2002 - China
China's CDC reports that flu is becoming full blown. Viruses are mostly of the
Moscow and Caledonia strains. Symptoms include high-grade fever, muscle aches,
headache and persistent cough, with some diarrhea. Young children are contracting
rotavirus infection which leads to vomiting and diarrhea. Source:
China Post - Financial Times Information - (LNAU). (See the 13 April 2002 United
States - Virginia entry.)
18 January 2002 - England Outbreak of flu-like illness in a Cornwall comprehensive school. [No
About half the students are suffering respiratory symptoms but initial tests
for influenza are negative. Further tests are underway. A second outbreak
has occurred in a school in Scotland.
Source: Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) - Infectious Diseases in the News.
[For material on UK infectious diseases, see:
Health Protection Agency infection pages.]
5 February 2002 - China - Hong Kong.
64,000 chickens to be killed at a poultry farm in Kam Tin after 1,000 there died of
suspected bird flu over the weekend. Tests are being conducted to see if the virus could
affect humans. Source: Hong Kong Imail - World Sources, Inc. - (LNAU).
6 February 2002 - England.
WHO announces the isolation of a new strain of influenza virus- A(H1N2) -
[No longer available.] -
"The new strain has been so far been isolated from humans in England, Israel, and
Egypt in the last few weeks. A similar event is reported to have occurred in China
in the 1988/1989 influenza season when a number of influenza isolates were detected
which were determined to have arisen as a result of reassortment. Further spread of
these reassortment viruses in humans did not occur at that time." - Public Health
Laboratory Service (PHLS) - Infectious Diseases in the News.
(For an overview of the earlier China findings, see
Study on the origin of influenza A(H1N2) virus HA and NA genes [No longer available.]
Report was in Chinese and English.)
At present this writer does not know the onset date for the 1988 appearance of H1N2 in
China. (In this study Venus is a hypothetical source for new strains of influenza.)
Venus passed between the sun and Earth on about 13 June that year. See:
Calculated Dates of Venus Inferior Conjunctions. A search
is underway to see how active the solar wind (the proposed transport mechanism) was
at the same time. [Added 12 July 2002.] The H1N2 strain in China was identifed in December
1988. If that date corresponds to the initial outbreak then there would have been approximately
180 days between the 13 June inferior conjunction and the outbreak. [Added 28 May 2004.]
7 February 2002 - United States - Wisconsin.
Unusual Influenza Strain Identified in Wisconsin - [No longer available.] -
A six month old child in Outagamie county became ill in December 2001 and has made
a complete recovery. No additional cases have been detected. "The evolution of this virus,
which has been named A/Wisconsin/12/2001(H1N2), appears to have resulted from the
combination or "reassortment" of the genes of the currently circulating A/New
Caledonia(H1N1) and the A/Moscow(H3N2) strains of influenza A." - Wisconsin
Department of Health & Family Services - Reference Center - 07 February 2002.
8 February 2002 - Europe. First isolation of influenza A(H1N2) in Europe "In England, influenza A(H1N2)
has been isolated for the first time in Europe. Isolates have come from both hospital and
community sources, including three school outbreaks. Most of the cases so far have been in
the 5-14 year age range. The A(H1N2) subtype has also been isolated in Scotland: one
of the four typed isolates of this winter is an H1N2 and the three others are H3N2."
European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) - Week 5: 27/01/2002-03/02/2002 - Issue
No. 54. (No H1N1 isolates are mentioned.) [Link to source no longer works. 5 Sep 2011]
England - PHLS Disease Facts - Influenza - (Updated as necessary.)
Frequently asked questions on Flu -Influenza A (H1N2) -
[No longer available.]
Q Where has this new strain come from?
A The precise origin of the new strain is not known. The World Health
Organization through its global influenza programme has reported that viruses of the new strain of
influenza A have so far been identified in Egypt and Israel. Influenza A virus
isolates from England, that have been submitted to the PHLS national influenza reference
laboratory in London during this winter, have been examined. Many have also been found to be of
the H1N2 subtype. In addition, isolates of the H1N2 strain have also continued to circulate both
in England and in other countries. ...
9 February 2002 - Canada - International info.
"L'OMS et le Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) du Royaume-Uni ont
rapporté une récente identification d'une souche humaine d'influenza A(H1N2) en
Angleterre, en Israël et en Egypte. De plus, un virus
d'influenza A(H1N2) a été identifié aux E.-U., au Wisconsin, d'un spécimen
prélevé d'un patient en décembre
2001." Source: FluWatch - édition française 3 février au 9 février 2002 (semaine 06) - Canada. Link http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/fluwatch/01-02/w06_02/index_f.html
no longer works. [10 Jan 2013]
11 February 2002 - United States - Wisconsin
"Officials identify new flu virus - Health officials have identified a new influenza virus
in Wisconsin that they think resulted from a genetic scramble of two different flu strains
that simultaneously infected a 6-month-old Outagamie County child."
[Underline added for emphasis.]
"The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention notified state health officials this
week that a sample collected on Dec. 7 from the child was a novel virus to be named
A-Wisconsin/12.2001 (H1N2), a combination of the H1N1 New Caledonia and H3N2
JSOnline Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. [Link no longer works.]
11 February 2002 - Finland
Uusi A-virusten alatyyppi H1N2 - [No longer available.] - News release
containing an announcement of WHO findings of H1N2 viruses. Source: KTL,
Mikrobiologian osatsto, influenssalaboratorio, Helsinki.
Influenza A(H1N2) - Part 2
14 February 2002 - United States.
"On February 6, 2002, WHO and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) in
the United Kingdom reported the recent identification of a new influenza virus
strain, influenza A(H1N2), isolated from humans in England, Israel, and
Egypt. In addition to the viruses reported by PHLS, the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified influenza A(H1N2) viruses from patient
specimens collected during July, September, and December 2001 in
Texas, Nevada, and Wisconsin, respectively." Source: CDC - National
Center for Infectious Diseases - Influenza Summary Update
Week ending February 9, 2002-Week 6.
Special note. Added on 29 May 2004.
The Texas, USA H1N2 specimen collected in July 2001 (14 Feb entry above) was preceded by
an isolation in India on 30 May 2001. In a CDC report(1), on H1N2, researchers reported:
"Among the H1N2 viruses we identified, the earliest isolate was A/India/66139/2001
(30 May 2001), which suggests that the reassortment event may have occurred in
South Asia in early 2001 or earlier."
The 30 May India isolation falls, date-wise, right at the end of the author's lookout window
of 30-60 days following the March 30th Venus inferior conjunction. See the non-prediction
prediction in the opening paragraphs of Global Developments: Spring-Summer
In a later publication(1a) in the study above, the researchers reported, "Our data indicate that recent
H1N2 viruses are unusually homogeneous antigenically and genetically, compared with circulating H1N1
viruses ... which indicates that the currently circulating H1N2 viruses may have been derived from a single
reassortment event. [The author has seen no study regarding the rapid global distribution of H1N2. -
Added 4 April 2005]
20 February 2002 - U.S.A. Cincinnati Ohio
Flu Scarce, but winter 'bugs' thrive In the past week, surges of patients have
prompted local hospitals to go "on diversion" 55 times. ... During one three-hour
stretch Monday afternoon, five hospitals were diverting patients at the same time:
Bethesda North, Clermont Mercy, Christ, University and Mercy Franciscan-Western
Hills. ...Instead of influenza, many Tristate residents have been coughing and sneezing
their way through a variety of common viruses and bacterial infections that can
result in anything from strep throat to pneumonia. In the vast majority of cases,
doctors treat the symptoms without testing to pin down the exact bugs involved.
(Used with permission.)
Source: The Cincinnati Enquirer - Online edition
22 February 2002 - World Health Organization
Influenza activity, October 2001-February 2002 - Influenza A(H1N2) - From November to
January, influenza A(H1N2) viruses were isolated from outbreaks or sporadic cases in Egypt,
Israel, the United Kingdom and the United States. In addition, Czech Republic, Iceland,
Mexico and Paraguay reported evidence of influenza A without identifying the subtype.
WHO Weekly epidemiological record - 22 February 2002. 77th year, No. 8, 2002, 77, 57-68
23 Feb - 7 Mar 2002 - United States (Date uncertain.)
Flu Epidemic Sweeping Through DC School - Students suffering flu-like symptoms with
pains as well as nausea and vomiting. Source: ABC 7 WJLA-TV - Posted on
FluWatch.com Flu News. [No longer available.]
8 March 2002 - Global.
Influenza A(H1N2) viruses (update) "Between September 2001 and February 2002 reassortant influenza A(H1N2) viruses have been isolated from outbreaks or sporadic cases in Canada, Egypt,
France, India, Israel, Latvia, Malaysia, Oman, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the
United States." Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record - 2002, 77, 77-80 - World Health
20 March 2002 (Wednesday) - Colorado USA
180 students miss school on Tuesday in Castle Rock. - Missing students are victims of diarrhea,
sore throats and vomiting. "More than 240 students, or a quarter of the student population,
missed class on Monday." The school averages 50 absences per day in the winter.
According to the executive director of Tri-County Health Department, which serves Douglas County,
just South of Denver, "All the kids have different symptoms, which tells us that they contracted
different things." Other Douglas County schools, along with other metro-area school districts showed
no noticeable increases in absences. Source: Rocky Mountain News (Denver, CO)
(LNAU) - World News - Search term: influenza.
[Douglas County Colorado was placed on the "no-activity" status by
FluWatch.com back on 20 February 2002.]
22 March 2002 - Canada.
"Of the six A(H1) isolates identified antigenically, five were characterized by genetic
analysis to be a new influenza A(H1N2) strain. The H1N2 strains were identified
from specimens taken since December 2001 from patients in Alberta (1)
Saskatchewan (2) and Manitoba (2)." Source: Week 10 issue of Canada's 2002
FluWatch. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/fluwatch/01-02/w10_02/index.html [Link no longer works.]
23 March 2002 - Europe.
"Up until the 21st of March 2002 (3:45pm), the EISS database had 5,820 laboratory-confirmed
reports of influenza. ... A total of 44 cases of influenza A(H1N2) were reported to EISS:
30 (all sentinel) in England, 9 (all sentinel) in Ireland, 4 in France
(3 sentinel and 1 non-sentinel) and 1 in Romania (sentinel). This means that only
3.1% of the subtyped influenza A reports in the EISS database were cases of influenza
EISS Weekly Electronic Bulletin - Select Week 11, 2002.
Link [http://www.eiss.org/cgi-files/bulletin_v2.cgi?season=2001] no longer works. 08 Jan 2013
Thanks to visitor in Richmond, Victoria, Australia.
28 March 2002- Alaska
Asian Dust Reaches Alaska SeaWiFS view of Alaska and the Bering Sea, collected on March 28,
2002, shows snow and ice cover... Also visible are brownish patches near the center and lower right
of this scene that appears to be dust from Asia. Image courtesy the
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE.
28 March 2002 - California
Late-Season Flu Bug Strikes: An unexpected outbreak of Type B influenza has hit many of
county's elementary, middle school students in the last two weeks. Symptoms include: body aches,
headaches, fever (up to 104 F), dizziness, sore throats, coughing, extreme fatigue, upset stomachs
(including diarrhea). Lasts three to four days instead of the usual seven. "Like the rolling virus."
The problem which started around March 15th, seems to be concentrated in Southern
California. - Source: Los Angeles Times - (LNAU) - World News - Search term: influenza.
[Even though the dust storm seems to have visibly fizzled out, there was a peculiar peak in U.S.
influenza activity which started a few days before what was left of the dust reached the West coast.
(See the flu activity seasonal summaries graphic below, which follows the 2 May Wisconsin entry.) There
might be a connection between the dust storm and the 15 March Southern California "late-season
flu bug" (28 March entry) and the 19 March Colorado problems (20 March entry) . If so,
then there may have been some, biologicial hitchhikers riding the front bumper, so to
speak, of the dust storm.] (This note was installed on 28 July 2002.)
1 April 2001 - Scotland - Glasgow
Three patients in a Glasgow hospital died in a salmonella outbreak this winter and 300 other
patients were victims of the so-called winter vomiting bug or gastric flu.
A hygiene breach has been blamed. Source: The Herald (Glasgow).
(LNAU) - World News - Search term: influenza.
4 April 2002 - U.S.A. - Virginia
Flu Spurs Virginia to Wipe out Whole Flocks - First major outbreak of avian influenza to hit
Shenandoah valley in two decades. Outbreak started two weeks ago.[Which would have been
around 22 March] Farmers and veterinarians mystified. Source: Washington Post April 4,
2002; Page B1, Section: Metro.
9 April 2002 - Australia - Melbourne
Two recent unseasonal outbreaks of influenza A have occurred involving highly
vaccinated residents in aged-care facilities in Melbourne Australia. Outbreaks were
diagnosed as influenza A(H3N2).
Facility Month No. of No. of Attack Pct No. of No. of Attack Pct
Patients Cases Rate Vacc. Staff Cases Rate Vacc.
Hostel January 42 19 45% 90% 29 6 21% 7%
Nursing H. March 32 15* 47% ~90% 28 10 36% 10%
*One patient died
Genetically the strains differed sufficiently to indicate that the 2 outbreaks did not have
a common source. [January and March are mid-summer in Australia.]
Source: http://www.influenzacentre.org/flunews.htm -
[No longer available.] Posted on the ProMed-Mail Post
on 9 April 2002.
Influenza A(H1N2) - Part 3
11 April 2002 - United States.
"CDC has antigenically characterized 420 influenza viruses collected from
U.S. Laboratories since October 1: 279 influenza A(H3N2) viruses, 16 H1
viruses, and 125 influenza B viruses. ... Ten of the H1 viruses are H1N2
viruses collected in Wisconsin (December 2001 through February 2002) and
Pennsylvania (February 2002). Two additional H1N2 viruses have been
identified from patient specimens collected during July and September in
Texas and Nevada respectively." Source: CDC - National Center for
Infectious Diseases - Influenza Summary Update
Week ending April 6, 2002-Week 14. Select Week 14 of 2002 in the
Weekly Surveillance Reports for years 2001-2002.
11 April 2002 - England.
Outbreak of influenza in a religious community [No longer available.]
"An outbreak of influenza A has been reported from a religious community
in the south of England. Approximately 120 individuals of all ages, both male
and female, have been affected so far in the outbreak from a population of 350.
All individuals in the community are reported to have received influenza
vaccination in autumn 2001. The date for the majority of cases was between
9 and 20 March 2002, although sporadic cases continue to be reported. Cases
have generally presented with 'flu-like illness consisting of fever, cough, headache
and malaise. No cases have needed hospital admission. Approximately 20
individuals have been treated therapeutically with zanamivir in line with current
Investigations have been carried out by the local communicable disease control
team and microbiology laboratories. Specimens have been submitted to the
National Influenza Laboratory at the Enteric, Respiratory, and Neurological Virus
Laboratory (ERNVL): influenza A subtype H3N2 has been confirmed in 16 out of
18 cases from which specimens have been examined. Further investigation of the
outbreak is currently underway." Source: CDR Weekly - PHLS.
11 April 2002 - Europe.
"No new cases of influenza A(H1N2) were reported to EISS in week 14/2002."
Source: EISS Weekly Electronic Bulletin - Week 14, 2002.
http://www.eiss.org/cgi-files/bulletin.cgi - [Link no longer works.]
13 April 2002 - United States -Virginia.
Contagious Illness at College Diagnosed. - [No longer available.] -
Severe and highly contagious stomach flu, racks 120 students at women's college in
Lynchburg., VA. Symptoms: vomiting, diarrhea, severe abdominal cramps and
dehydration. Origin unknown. Source: Washington Post -
(See the 9 January 2002 - China entry.)
Another trans-Pacific dust storm was bearing down on the U.S. west coast about two
weeks prior to the Lynchburg stomach flu outbreak. (See the 28 -30 March entries above.)
18 April 2002 - United States - Minnesota.
St. Cloud: Flu Outbreak Strikes Junior High - [No longer available.]
Late-season outbreak "of the more serious Influenza B" leads to high absenteeism.
Source: Yahoo! News -
24 April 2002 - Worldwide
Influenza B viruses currently circulating worldwide can be divided into two antigenically
distinct lineages: B/Yamagata/16/88 and B/Victoria/2/87. B/Yamagata viruses have
circulated widely since 1990, and the B component of the current influenza vaccine
belongs to this lineage. Since 1991, B/Victoria viruses have not been identified outside
of Asia. However, since March 2001, B/Victoria lineage viruses have been identified in
many countries, including the United States. Of the 96 U.S. influenza B viruses
characterized antigenically this season, 53 were of the B/Yamagata lineage, and 43 were
of the B/Victoria lineage. Source:CDC MMWR 2002;51:276-279 (Reprinted in the Journal
of the American Medical Association
JAMA April 24, 2002 -- Volume 287, No. 16, page 2068. -
[No longer available.]
24 April 2002 - United States - Alaska. Flu-like symptoms hit Anchorage schools - [No longer available.]. A recent high rate of school
absenteeism has lead to the speculation that flu might be mounting a late season attack on
Anchorage. No flu confirmation yet by state epidemiologists. Source: MSNBC, Anchorage,
AK. - Google news search.
25 April 2002 - Greece.
Greece Reports New Cases of Possible Killer Bug - [No longer available.] -
A mystery virus has been blamed for several deaths. Schools in Athens shut down temporarily.
Doctors are still trying to identify the strain of virus, which is thought to belong to the enterovirus
group. Source: Reuters.com - Health News Coverage. (JAVA intensive site!)
- - -
The following two paragraphs and histograms were placed in this file on 26 April 2002 and modified
on 29 April 2002.
It has widely been stated that the new A(H1N2) virus subtype appears to have arisen
by reassortment of the two human viruses A(H1N1) and A(H3N2). With
that possibility in mind, the following (edited to fit your printer and to equalize vertical
scales for both seasons) histograms from the United States CDC* are provided. The graphs
show that during the 2000-2001 flu season there was a substantial amount
of A(H1N1) isolates found but extremely little A(H3N2). In 2001-2002 the
situation was reversed -- very little A(H1N1) but a lot of A(H3N2).
*[CDC link http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/flu/weekly.htm - needs updating.]
Three questions arise. Where and when were there sufficient quantities of the two subtypes
intermingling, in order for the reassortment process to take place? Were there
multiple reassortment sites around the globe? Is there any evidence of migration from
the various points of origin of the new subtype? (These may be the wrong questions.)
2 May 2002 - Wisconsin USA Influenza A(H1N2) Viruses in Wisconsin - [No longer available.] - The initial Wisconsin isolate was
recovered from a specimen collected December 7, 2001 from a six month old child [in
Outagamie county]. Eight additional A(H1N2) isolates were detected between January 11
and February 11, 2002 from patients aged 9 through 31 years. Seven of these came from St.
Vincent Hospital in Greenbay [Brown county]. All of the Wisconsin H1N2 isolates
to date have been from [the] two adjacent counties. Source: Wisconsin
State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI. [Names of counties added.]
The Wisconsin counties where H1N2 viruses were isolated (Outagamie and Brown) were never
listed as active on FluWatch.com during the 2001-2002 flu season. The locations of the counties
that were listed as such are shown as green dots.
The following diagram shows a comparison of reported activity for the 2000-2001 and 2001-2002
flu seasons. It is derived mainly from the FluWatch.com
'01-'02 Trend Map [Was: http://www.fluwatch.com/trendmap.html] and from
FluWatch.com daily reports [Was: http://www.fluwatch.com]. Activity levels shown
in slightly darker colors are based on archived data furnished by the National Flu Surveillance
The lighter grey background area corresponds to the October 1 - March 31 time frame of the
FluWatch Trend Map. (Levels for Rhode Island and the District of Columbia are omitted in the
parts derived from the Trend Map because their images there are too small to be used unambiguously.)
The purpose for showing the seasonal patterns here, is to look for unusual influenza activity,
i.e., unexpected bumps or valleys, especially in the first month or two following the March 30, 2001
Venus inferior conjunction with its accompanying solar storm. See the introductory section of Global Developments: Spring-Summer 2001. [Inserted on 9 July 2002.
Latest update was on 25 July 2002.]
One bump of interest on the above graph starts toward the end of March 2002 and
tapers off in early April. (See the orange colored alert activity.)
Coincident with the bump was a diluted dust storm which was moving across the U.S. from
West to East. It had originated in Asia. (See the entries for 20 -30 March above.) Now, there
may be no connection between the arrival of the Asian dust and a few odd late season
influenza-like outbreaks (false cause is easy), but on the other hand the beginning of
Wave of the 1918 influenza Pandemic, at least at Fort Riley in Kansas, was accompanied by
a significant dust storm.
What might have been a pre-season influenza herald event in the United States took place
in July through September of 2001. (See the first graph in the section
USA Influenza 2001-2002 - Part 2.)
That nationwide flurry of summer activity (in 2001) may have been related to other late season
global influenza-like activity. See the 14 April 2001 (Pakistan) and 23 May 2001 (Indonesia) entries
on the Global Developments: Spring - Summer 2001- Part I page.
[Added 29 June 2002. Re-worked on 9 July 2002]
29 May 2002 - Canada - Alberta
For chronological stats on A(H1N2) in Alberta, Canada, see Alberta's
Viral Watch. [Link no longer works.]
Influenza A(H1N2) - Part 4
31 May 2002 - Canada - PPHB
Infectious Diseases News Brief - Influenza: Canada -[Link no longer applicable.]
During the period of 26 August 2001 - 4 May 2002, Health Canada has received 49,461 reports of
laboratory tests for influenza: 5,801 (12.2%) were positive for influenza A and 785 were positive
for influenza B. The National Microbiology Laboratory antigenically characterized 452 influenza
isolates to date this season: 310 were A(H3N2); 18 were A(H1); 124 were influenza B. Of the 18
A(H1) isolates identified antigenically, 17 were characterized by genetic analysis to be a new
influenza A(H1N2) strain. The H1N2 strains were identified from specimens taken since December
2001 from patients in Alberta (seven), Saskatchewan (eight) and Manitoba (two). Source: Health
Canada - Public and Public Health Branch (PPHB)
03 June 2002
The following reconstituted graphic shows the total numbers of WHO
FluNet - [No longer available.] specimens
analyzed in the United States during the periods of Jan - May 2001 and Jan - May 2002.
It can be seen that there was, in fact, low level but significant flu related/suspected
activity during the month of May (and probably carrying over into June) of 2001.
Was: http://oms2.b3e.jussieu.fr/flunet/activity.html - There
may be a new link.
WHO Published weekly summaries are curtailed at the end of week 20.
Copies of theWHO FluNet monthly graphs used in the preparation of the above summaries
may be viewed by clicking on the following links.
08 June 2002 - United States - New Jersey
Mystery Rash Surfaces at South Jersey High School - About 80 students at Gateway Regional
High School have exhibited a red blotchy rash. Rash disappears soon after students leave the
school. Source: (AP) (Woodbury Heights, N.J.) -
www.kyw.com/Top Stories, Courtesy of the
This writer chooses to see a possible geographical and/or timing relation
between the recent school rash outbreaks and influenza. (This
is meant to imply that influenza may be part of a package deal in
which a spectrum of bad bugs, bacteria, viruses, etc., make
This is getting out on a limb, but there may be some architectural or
heating/cooling system similarities (in principle) between the buildings
where student school rash outbreaks have occurred (students have
to be in/or near the structures for the rashes to appear) and the buildings
where outbreaks of legionnaires' disease have occurred. (For example:
open air water cooling towers.) This does not imply that the
same factors are involved, rather that for the school rashes there
may be some common factors, as there have been found for the legionnaires
disease locales. See the article: "The Spread of Respiratory Disease in
Office Buildings" - [Link no longer works.] Aerobiological Engineering -
Pennsylvania State University - Graduate School of Architectural Engineering
& Department of Biology.
The presumption, here, is that the bad bugs are being delivered by "air mail." (Sender's
address is presently ambiguous.) Although not documented yet in these web pages, there seems to be a
remarkable correlation between Venus inferior conjunctions and the onsets of new waves of
legionnaires' disease which occur about 30-60 days later.. Add new outbreaks of
West Nile Virus, St. Louis Encephalitis, and Equine Encephalitis to
8 June 2002 - Australia
Lack of influenza A(H1) in Australia so far this winter - Interestingly, during the winter of 2002 in
Australia to date, there have been no isolates of the influenza A(H1) subtype. The last time this was
recorded in Australia was in the period 1996-1998 when no influenza A(H1) strains were isolated.
The reason for these fluctuations in influenza A subtype are not fully understood but are probably due
to a number of factors such as the lower rate of antigenic change seen with this subtype of influenza
compared to the A(H3) subtype. Source:
WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference & Research on Influenza - Melbourne, Australia. -
(Added to page on 16 August 2002) [Site shows info for current flu seasons.]
12 June 2002 - CDC National Center for Infectious Disease
Influenza A(H1N2) Viruses Identified [Was: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/flu/factsheetH1N2.htm]
2002 report may be somewhere on this site.]
On February 6, 2002, World Health Organization (WHO) and the Public Health Laboratory Service
(PHLS) in the United Kingdom reported the recent identification of a new influenza virus strain,
influenza A(H1N2), isolated from humans in England, Israel, and Egypt. In addition to the viruses
reported by PHLS, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified influenza
A(H1N2) virus from patient specimens collected during July 2001 through April 2002 in
Hawaii, Massachusetts, Nevada, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas and Wisconsin.
Influenza A(H1N2) viruses have been identified in the past. Between December 1988 and March
1989, 19 influenza A(H1N2) viruses were identified in 6 cities in China, but the virus did not spread
further. [Underlined locales are newly announced.]
As of this date (7 July 2002) this writer has no information regarding the dates or numbers of cases
for New York, Massachusetts, and Hawaii. For a news item possibly related to the appearance of
H1N2 in Hawaii, see the 2 August 2001 entry on the Global Developments:
Spring - Summer 2001, Part II.
30 August 2002 -Influenza: Canada (Update) [Site shows current influenza info.]
The National Microbiology Laboratory has antigenically characterized 553 influenza isolates
from 30 September 2001 to 10 August 2002 of the following subtypes: 333 A(H3N2); 72 A(H1N2);
one A(H1N1); 147 influenza B. The 72 A(H1N2) isolates were antigenically characterized by genetic
analysis and determined to be a new influenza A(H1N2) strain. ...Of the influenza B viruses
characterized to date, five are B/Sichuan/379/99-like and 142 are B/Hong Kong/22/01-like. ...
The B/Hong Kong/22/01-like viruses belong to another lineage of influenza viruses, the
B/Victoria/02/87 lineage, which last circulated in Canada in the 1988-1989 season.
[Emphasis added.] Source: FluWatch, 28 July to 10 August 2002 (Week 31 and 32), Centre for Infectious
Disease Prevention and Control; National Microbiology Laboratory, Health Canada.
The Canadian statistics do not support the idea of A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) reassorting
to produce A(H1N2). (See the 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 histograms for the USA above.) Also,
it appears that the new A(H1N2) virus and the surprise drop-in of B/Hong Kong/22/01
virus each exercised something like a territorial imperative with respect to
their assumed competitors.
Qi Junlin, WANG Min, DONG Jie, et al.,
Study on the origin of influenza A(H1N2) virus HA and NA genes -
[No longer available.] -
Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Beijing 100052. (Publication
year is 1995 or later.)
(1) Xiyan Xu, Catherine B. Smith, Bruce A. Mungall, Stephen E. Lindstrom, Henrietta E. Hall,
Kanta Subbarao, Nancy J. Cox, and Alexander Klimov. "Intercontinental Circulation of Human Influenza
A(H1N2) Viruses during the 2001-2002 Influenza Season," -
[PDF] http://www.daimi.au.dk/~roald/evolutionary_virology/week8/Xu_Inf_reass_02.pdf - [No longer available.]
- Concise Communication, Influenza Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta Georgia.
(1a) Xiyan Xu, Catherine B. Smith, Bruce A. Mungall, Stephen E. Lindstrom, Henrietta E. Hall,
Kanta Subbarao, Nancy J. Cox, and Alexander Klimov. "Intercontinental Circulation of Human Influenza
A(H1N2) Reassortant Viruses during the 2001-2002 Influenza Season," -
Concise Communication, Influenza Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta Georgia. -
The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2002;186:1490-1493. [Added 4 April 2005.]
[Was: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/344738] - Thanks to the
researcher in Pune, Marshtra, India, for searching Google.com for "Bruce Mungall" today.]